Discordant couples: what is it?
The term "discordant couples" is used to refer to spouses or partners who have one infected with HIV and the other is healthy. Having received a positive result when tested for HIV infection, a person finds it impossible to conclude a marriage with a chosen one in the future, who does not have similar problems. Having experienced a shock, protesting against such injustice or falling into a deep depression, the HIV-positive person chooses the second half only from such an environment.
But life goes on an independent path, it can not be concluded in predetermined frames and schemes. What was previously considered unimaginable, already today becomes a part of the life path of an infected person, and his healthy elect makes a marriage with him. Discordant couples experience a lot of difficulties and problems on their way of life. For an infected partner, there is always a fear of losing the beloved halves, in addition, the issue of procreation and the birth of healthy offspring is almost the main thing in uneasy relationships.
Married couples feel misunderstanding from relatives and friends, sometimes they are isolated in their loneliness. Each of us understands that such unions need constant support, their experience is valuable to our society. They absolutely need help in establishing full-fledged relationships, obtaining information about behavior to reduce the risk of infecting a loved one and gaining pleasure from sexual relations without the danger of transmitting the disease.
Knowledge of the presence of HIV infection in the body
If a person is healthy, but his contacts are associated with a risk of infection, then by changing his behavior in accordance with the rules, he will avoid infection in future periods. Life in a discordant couple with knowledge of the status of a partner or one's own will allow to agree on safe sexual contact and help to conceive a healthy offspring. Pregnant carriers of the virus, remembering their status, can bear and give birth to an HIV-negative child.
The life of an infected person is fraught with many difficulties, and, knowing about his disease, he protects against contamination of surrounding relatives and relatives with the help of preventive measures. The earlier the diagnosis is made, the sooner treatment begins, and there is a greater chance of maintaining one's health.
Period after infection
The period of adaptation after diagnosis is extremely difficult for an infected person. At this time, there are pain or other disorders associated with the development of the virus. There is a whole spectrum of emotions that are graded from the experience for life, the fear of leaving young children in the event of a lethal outcome to the hope of recovery. Some people show the will to live by fighting the disease and wanting to end it.
The attitude towards infection is manifested in how discordant couples live. Some differ in adequate behavior, according to the state in which they are located, others are disparaging to the existing situation, underestimating the seriousness of the situation. There are spouses who discard all thoughts about the future, others, on the contrary, overestimate their condition, their actions and behavior become a real phobia. Psychological help to such partners is to develop a stable attitude and to find positive emotions in every moment of the life path that discordant couples are going through.
The main stages of behavior in the adaptation period
Emotions even in a healthy person are not stable. Speaking about HIV-infected people, several acute stages of experiences should be noted:
- , at the initial stage, often there is a shock condition that goes to the stage of disbelief and denial, the patient refuses to accept the results of the analyzes, it seems stunned, shocked, this state of mind, despite the severity of manifestation, is viewed as a protective period for gathering strength and accepting sad reality;
- angry mood strikes a person later when he realizes that the disease has interfered with his relationship and completely changed them, life in a couple becomes difficult or impossible, because the infected person blames his wife or partner in everything;
- sooner or later, just indignation and anger are replaced by a desire to benefit from their condition, life limits are narrowed, and HIV infection is seen by the individual as a certain transaction, the partner begins to negotiate certain indulgences, referring to the deplorable state;
- understanding that indulgences from relatives and partners do not bring a tangible result, and life does not change for the better and the strength is getting smaller, a person falls into a depressed state, sometimes it is caused by a sense of his own guilt for today's result, which he did not foresee in pastfrivolous actions;
- a sense of acceptance of reality comes after humility and comfort about the expectation of the future fatal consequences, a person morally feels himself doomed and subject to an inevitable sentence, sometimes destroys these discordant couples, the second time the patient can not get infected, he withdraws into himself and renounces the present.
Patient's actions to develop a positive attitude
The period of comprehensive depression is reduced if the patient follows the rules of everyday behavior developed by psychologists. These tips are recommendatory, they will not restore health, but they will allow to overcome despondency, rejection, return to the ordinary way of existence and create discordant couples for lonely people. What this is, the patient tells the patient, and the patient gradually begins to believe in the possibility of a healthy continuation of a kind.
At the stage of fighting the depressed state, it is not recommended to set unbearable tasks and far-reaching goals, to overstate the requirements for oneself. Great cases are broken down into several easy stages, the realization that today the person has fulfilled the planned, leads him into a complacent mood. HIV infection in discordant couples can not be considered as an endangered danger. A critical attitude towards one's self, self-flagellation does not improve the state of mind, but small joys, favorite food, viewing an interesting show will make the desire to live more acute.
To reduce the negative impact, you should avoid all sorts of stresses, do not communicate with unpleasant interlocutors, determine morally critical situations and try to avoid them by any means. Every morning begins with exercise, charging to relieve muscle and nervous tension, walking in nature or in the park is practiced, as do many discordant couples. The risk of infection for others is insignificant, and to the patient it will bring positive emotions.
It is important to observe the regime of the day to reduce feelings, which do not constitute a rigid principle. It is reasonable to include in it mealtime, sleep, periods of wakefulness, entertainment, simple duties and communication with understanding friends. It is recommended to exclude from the diet hot drinks or psychotropic substances that relieve emotional feelings for a while, but in general the situation with time can get out of control.
Even healthy people who hold emotions in themselves are more likely to be depressed, so isolating oneself on their grief is not the best way out, one should cultivate a positive attitude in their thoughts. Life in a discordant couple means that a person should not underestimate self-esteem, no matter in what position he is, the world should be looked at objectively and try to do as much as possible good.
Replenishment planning in a discordant family
A special category of couples observed in the AIDS Center are discordant couples. What it is? Many spouses, if only one partner has a virus, face the problem of producing healthy offspring. Many of them, held in the social and material terms of the couple, have an acute need for information to support a loved one.
If a woman is infected with a family, then there are many opportunities to conceive and give birth to a healthy child without the risk of men getting the virus. In the Center, the spouses consult with infection doctors, epidemiologists, gynecologists, use the received advice in practice and become happy parents. Modern scientific methods for studying perinatal transmission of the virus make it possible to obtain a healthy offspring from an HIV-infected mother in 98-99%.
Discordant couples in which a man is infected, thanks to modern drugs prescribed to a partner even before conception, also have the opportunity to get a healthy baby. An evaluation of this victory is given by life, every uninfected child born in such a family is our future generation, and one more preserved cell of society. There is a danger of transmission of the mother's virus from the infected partner, but modern science, in this regard, provides the pairs with the latest achievements. Medicine offers reproductive technologies, in particular ICSI, IVF, discordant couples. Recent studies have shown that HIV infection does not put obstacles to such procedures.
In the Center consultations are held on a permanent, free basis. Examples of treatment of discordant parents indicate a high degree of trust of patients to the specialists of the clinic, the usefulness of the work done in the part of providing the necessary information for needy patients. The last years are characterized by an increase in the number of couples who have turned in three or more times.
General problems of conception
Statistics show that now discordant couples can endure the child and become happy parents. Pregnancy, so impossible in recent years, becomes real without the risk of transmission of the virus to a newborn baby. If the family is determined to get a healthy baby, then modern methods of preventive measures will help her in this. Complications arise only if advice and modern methods are ignored, this leads to the risk of infection of the second partner, more often a woman.
Conception is an unprotected sexual intercourse, because of this an uninfected partner risks becoming infected. If we are talking about a couple in which a woman is healthy, then at sexual contact, the risk of transmission of the virus to the fetus is much higher than if the partner is infected, and the man has negative test results.
To be happy in today's day desires a discordant couple. HIV infection is not a sentence, as scientists are working to create a tool to reduce the risk of infection during sexual intercourse.
Conception rules in a discordant couple with an infected woman
With unprotected sex, the risk of getting a virus is less for a man than for a woman, but the partner can not be completely excluded from infection. To transfer is not realized, it is most rational to use the method of fertilization at home. To do this, the pharmacy sells a special device that allows you to enter a single sperm directly into the female vagina for fertilization. All the minute details of the procedure are described in the instructions of the device or given in consultation with a doctor.
This is the method used in the period of ovulation in a woman, which should be remembered by a discordant couple. HIV infection will recede if this time is correctly determined. To do this, refer to a specialist gynecologist or buy a pharmacy test. There is an unreasonable opinion that the method affects the health of the unborn child, but such an assertion is far from reality, as evidenced by ubiquitous statistics.
Tips for fertilization paired with an infected partner
In this case, problems of conception exist in a much larger volume. To reduce the risk of infection of women, specialists have developed a method for the purification of sperm. But this method is used only in foreign clinics. Without this procedure, the risk of transmission of the partner's virus exists and remains real, so discordant couples handle it differently. The risk of infection is ignored, some are referred to special institutions for the adoption of children, others use the method of artificial insemination from an uninfected donor.
A statistically effective method is to reduce the virus in the sperm at the time of conception. The partner takes antiretroviral medications that reduce the burden of infection to a certain level. This method does not give a full guarantee and can not protect discordant couples. HIV-viral load of sperm does not always correspond to the same value in blood, but still the method reduces the risk of transmission of the virus many times over.
The next way to prevent risk is to use the woman immediately after the end of sexual intercourse with antiretroviral medications. This reduction in infection is rarely used, as doctors are concerned about the negative impact of drugs on the fetus. To reduce the possibility of infection at the time of conception, partners should not have other diseases of the genitourinary sphere. For example, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and other infectious lesions contribute to a certain extent to the penetration of the virus through the threshold barrier.
Reducing the risk of transmission of the virus to the baby during pregnancy and feeding
The doctor of the infectious disease department, in the early stages of gestation, develops an individual protection program for each future HIV-infected mother individually. The complex includes the reception of therapeutic drugs ARV, which are appointed after a thorough study of the woman's health and studying the influence of medicines on the baby's future. An HIV-positive pregnant woman must be especially attentive to her health, think about the full-fledged future of the child, so her main task is the impeccable adherence to the doctor's prescriptions.
The most safe method of delivery is considered to be cesarean section, however, after conducting a series of tests and tests, the doctor allows for regular births if the indices are normal. In the period of feeding after childbirth, the baby is prescribed sparing antiviral therapy, but the woman will have to give up breastfeeding, since this greatly increases the risk of infection of the child. To the nutrition of ready-made dairy mixtures and preparations in this case, discordant couples resort, which on the prevention of transmission of the virus try to keep the baby healthy.
Nutrition for HIV-infected patients
Nutrition with natural and high-quality products helps the body at any stage to fight the virus, as it adds strength and boosts immune defense. The main rule of the ration is the inclusion in it of high-calorie foods and high-quality protein foods. If the patient has previously fed on this scheme, then he will not have to revise the principles of eating.
The correct power supply is adhered to by many discordant couples. That's what it means in terms of cooking and eating:
- meals are distributed evenly throughout the day, their number is at least four times;
- in the diet is necessarily present natural products in the form of solid grated cheese, home-made butter, sour cream, use own-made mayonnaise;
- water in the diet is replaced with juices, compotes, milk, kefir, if the body responds well to dairy products;
- must include in the diet high-quality chocolate, cream, milk types of ice cream;
- per day use at least three full portions of protein dishes, for example, one chicken ham or two eggs, two pieces of cheese or a saucer of peeled nuts serves as an example of a portion.
In addition to compulsory products, food consists of cereals( not fast cooking), potatoes, bread. To enhance intestinal motility include raw and boiled vegetables, fruit or juice from them. In order not to aggravate the morbid state, it is necessary to take responsibility for the washing of vegetables and fruits before eating. It is not recommended to use questionable origin of semi-finished products, sausages, fast food.
Basic rules for open sun exposure
Light sensitivity means transition to a state where even a small amount of sunlight triggers an undesired reaction of the skin. Often photosensitivity occurs after a visit to the solarium. Buying funds from sunburn, pay special attention to the composition of the cream, as some components cause complications:
- oily ingredients based on sandalwood, cedar, lemon, bergamot;
- uses harmful 6-methylcoumarin, which is undesirable for the skin of HIV-positive people, when manufacturing cosmetics and sunscreens.
The photosensitivity of the skin in infected patients is caused by some medications, the virus itself can become the cause. Many patients suffer from sensitivity to solar radiation. Associated disease with hepatitis C aggravates this harmful effect. To protect from light exposure, it is recommended to wear hats with wide margins, cover the surface of the body with dense clothing and do not use the services of artificial ultraviolet irradiation. From sunburn apply creams with a safety factor of at least 50.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the detection of HIV infection in the body does not mean an immediate cessation of life. After a disappointing diagnosis, life continues in a discordant couple and relationships with a loved one, for young spouses there is a real opportunity to become full parents. Many people after the establishment of the status of the infected begin to lead a healthy lifestyle, and subsequently a terrible infection recedes for a time, allowing to accomplish many wonderful things.