Diffuse osteoporosis: signs and treatment
To date, diseases of the musculoskeletal system have become younger. If several decades ago it was thought that people of age are affected by similar problems, now quite a few young people can be seen near the offices of osteopaths, vertebrologists and orthopedists. Diffuse osteoporosis is also considered a "rejuvenated" disease requiring comprehensive diagnosis and treatment.
What is this disease?
The loss of bone density, brittleness and fragility of the entire skeleton, thinning of bone tissue - all these are the main manifestations of diffuse osteoporosis. In comparison with the usual form of the disease, changes do not concern any one area, but the body as a whole. The disease is characterized by pronounced pain syndrome, which disturbs a person not only during movement or physical exertion, but also at rest. In parallel, the tendency to damage and fractures increases.
Diffuse osteoporosis is dangerous because it is diagnosed already during a period of severe changes from the side of the skeleton, because the initial manifestations are not specific, or even completely absent.
Etiology of the disease
Normal work of the body is associated with two parallel processes: the formation of bone tissue and its destruction. Violation of this balance and acceleration of catabolism leads to brittleness and a decrease in bone density. This process is facilitated by the following factors:
- The age of the patient - the biological aging of the organism, has not been canceled. After 50 years, the condition of the locomotor system deteriorates, as does the functionality of most organs.
- Hormonal changes associated with menopause, removal of female genital organs and glands, changes in adrenal and thyroid gland function.
- Hypovitaminosis D, which provokes a disruption in the absorption by the bone system of calcium.
- Prolonged intake of medicines( hormones, immunosuppressants, antacids, anticonvulsants).
- Alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking.
- Excessive physical activity.
- Presence of neoplasms.
- Hereditary predisposition.
For a long time, the symptomatology of the disease has no manifestations, which complicates early diagnosis. In most cases, the patient learns about his condition after traumatization. Diffuse osteoporosis of the spine is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- by a decrease in growth by a few centimeters;
- formation of a hump, a violation of posture;
- with constant pain syndrome;
- deformation of the chest;
- lack of a waist line;
- reduced performance;
- fast fatigue.
Diffuse osteoporosis of the joints is manifested by swelling, restriction of mobility, aching pains, muscle cramps of the lower limbs.
How to suspect the development of the disease?
Not only patients, but also specialists with many years of practice, can confuse osteoporosis with inflammatory diseases of the joints. Often, these pathologies appear simultaneously, but these are two completely different ailments that require separate consideration.
Unfortunately, diffuse osteoporosis of bones makes itself felt after fractures. The most characteristic damages are the compression fractures of the spine, as well as the femoral or radius bone, arising after the minimal impact of the traumatic factor. According to statistics, half of the patients who received compression injuries are unaware of their appearance. In addition to aching pain in the back, no symptoms can disturb.
After a few months, even the pain syndrome disappears, and the patient does not suspect about their problems until the next traumatization. Persistent soreness has nothing to do with such specific fractures and may be indicative of myeloid leukemia or bone metastases.
X-ray examination to determine the initial manifestations of the disease is shown to all persons at risk. This includes people who have the following statuses:
- early onset of menopause;
- long-term use of hormonal drugs;
- presence of frequent fractures in the age of up to 40 years;
- body mass index is below normal;
- complicated family history of the diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
Diffuse osteoporosis requires a full complex treatment, but it is possible only after a complete examination of the body, which allows to determine the state of all bones of the skeleton. After collecting an anamnesis of life and illness, the specialist directs the patient to an X-ray examination to assess the following signs of diffuse osteoporosis:
- reduced bone density;
- thinning of the vertebrae;
- insertion of intervertebral discs into vertebral bodies;
- the presence of osteophytes( proliferation of bone tissue in the form of tubercles or spines).
X-ray is an informative method of examination, however, changes are determined without clarification of nuances. You can see only the general picture. For a more in-depth diagnosis, bone densitometry is used to determine the "amount" of bone tissue.
A similar study can be conducted using any of the standard diagnostic methods, but the most common is X-ray absorptiometry, which allows to determine bone mineral density. The patient is placed on a special table along which the scanner moves. The procedure does not require special preparation. RA has two methods of diagnosis: peripheral allows you to clarify the density of the bones of the hand, wrist or calcaneus, and the central - femoral and bones of the spine.
The next method used to differentiate the disease is computed tomography. The results of the survey make it possible to calculate specific density indices, depending on the body weight and age of the patient.
Principles of therapy
Diffuse osteoporosis, the treatment of which should be performed in specialized centers of narrow focus, requires the participation of several specialists( endocrinologist, rheumatologist, neurologist).The choice of doctors' participation depends on the cause of the disease. The most frequently involved specialist is an endocrinologist.
Osteoporosis therapy should be carried out simultaneously with the treatment of the disease that caused its appearance( thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, etc.).Diffuse osteoporosis requires the use of the following groups of medicines:
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - relieve pain, eliminate puffiness, stop signs of inflammatory reaction( Movalis, Revmoxicam).
- Remedies that slow down the destruction of bone tissue( "Osteohin", "Miakaltsik").
- Calcium preparations.
- Derivatives of vitamin D.
- Drugs that stimulate the work of osteoblasts( "Ossin").
- Steroids that affect the regeneration of bone tissue( "Teriparatide", "Testosterone").Calcitonin in case of thyroid dysfunction.
- In the climacteric, estrogen and progesterone preparations are prescribed as substitution therapy.
- For topical use, ointments with anti-inflammatory components are used.
The use of physiotherapy, in particular, ultraphonophoresis, ultrasound, magnetotherapy, massage, elements of medical gymnastics is allowed.
Proper nutrition is considered one of the factors preventing not only diffuse, but also other types of osteoporosis. Along with the products must come a sufficient amount of vitamins and trace elements, especially calcium. Non-smoking and alcohol abuse also play an important role in prevention.
Older people and those who are at risk for this disease should undergo periodic examinations to determine the development of the disease in the early stages.
Treatment of diffuse osteoporosis is a complex and time-consuming process that may not always have a favorable outcome. It is easier to prevent the disease by following the advice of specialists than to spend a huge amount of money, time and effort to fight it.