Gluteus maximus: functions and structure
Muscular tissue of the buttocks is a large array of quadrangular muscles located on the back of the pelvis. They determine the shape and outlines of the buttocks( provided the fat content is normal in them).On the one hand, they are fixed on the spine and pelvis, and on the other - on the upper part of the femur behind. Muscles of the buttocks are of three types: large, medium and small. Developed muscle tissue is not only beautiful from an aesthetic point of view. Muscle tone determines the strength and health of the body as a whole. The muscles of the buttocks and thighs make up the bulk of the human muscle volume.
The largest in size is the gluteus maximus muscle. It is located closest to the skin and is responsible for the appearance and aesthetics of the buttocks, since it depends on it how much this part of the body will protrude. In its structure it has diamond-shaped outlines, wide and fleshy.
The abnormally large size of the buttock muscle tissue is a characteristic feature of the muscle structure of people, and it allows the person to hold the trunk directly upright. The structurally large muscle consists of coarse fibers assembled in bundles and parallel to each other. These bundles are connected in one large, but are separated by partitions consisting of fibers.
The gluteus maximus begins in the region of the ilium( specifically, from the posterior part) and is located directly above and behind the iliac crest. Further, it passes along the lower part of the sacrum away from the coccyx. Fibers are directed down and sideways, forming the majority of the muscle in the lower part of the muscle with the outer fibers. Next, the muscle bypasses the large spit of the hip bone and turns into a wide shell. Deep seated fibers in the lower part of the muscle are located between the lateral wide femoral and the adductor muscles.
The gluteus maximus muscle is one of the main muscles that is used in such sports as hockey, basketball, football or volleyball. Her stretching can be very painful and long lasting.
On the external surface of the ileum, the middle muscle of the buttock originates( above the front line of the muscle tissue).The gluteal aponeurosis gives it a start. Its parts converge in the tendon, attached to the side of the hip joint.
Begins between the lower and anterior gluteal line in front of the ilium. Behind it passes from the sciatic muscle and is attached to the hip joint.
Functions of the gluteus muscles
Being in a static state in the pelvic region, large muscle fibers support the muscles of the thigh in tonus and help the human body to keep in an upright position. Fixing motionless below, the muscle supports the body above the head of the thigh, which helps us to stand on one leg. For example, when tilted, it helps the trunk to keep straight, pulling the pelvis back.
The gluteus maximus strains the so-called wide fascia of the thigh( this is the connective membrane of the femur, extending from the pelvis to the knee joint along its outer part).This helps not to turn the thigh inside when running and stabilizes the knee joint. The large gluteal muscle has other functions:
- It is responsible for the extension of the hip in the pelvic region.
- Unbends the trunk when it is fixed.
- Turns the hips outward.
- Helps to divert them in different directions.
- Promotes bringing the hip to a central position.
- With its help, the body and legs stabilize during physical exertion, such as running or walking.
Perfection of the muscles of the buttocks
To date, the sports lifestyle has become widespread, it has become fashionable to maintain its physical form and bring the entire body into tone. And if for the most part speech in this case is about the aesthetic component and the increase in physical strength, then the situation with gluteal muscles looks different - the lack of muscle mass in this area causes atrophy of the legs, a person can not stand for a long time, walk or squat.
The functions of the gluteus muscles are very diverse. Change the appearance, shape and volume of muscles is possible only through persistent and regular training( if we talk about natural changes, and not surgical intervention, for example).
The role of theexercises
Different exercises for inflating the gluteus maximus have different goals: you can both increase their volume and correct the shape. The increase in volume does not seem to be a particularly difficult task, it does not require any special methods and training programs, it is enough to perform regular tasks to keep the muscles in tone. If it is a question of visual adjustment, then it is necessary to study each individual fiber bundle of muscle tissue, for which whole sets of various exercises are performed. The middle gluteus muscle is also involved.
The most effective exercises are squats, lunges and deadlifts. And if the first two types of exercises are doable without special equipment, then the latter is only feasible in the gym.
Types of exercises
There are two general groups of exercises for the gluteal muscle:
- With or without weighting.
- Basic or isolated.
Do the exercises, most importantly, do not forget about the technique of execution. If it is broken instead of the gluteus maximus, you risk increasing the volume of the quadriceps. But even more serious consequences of incorrect performance of exercises is a disruption in the functioning of the joints, which can lead to injuries of the middle gluteus muscle.
Weights are dumbbells and barbells. Weight and type of weighting depends on the level of training of the trainee. When working with them, the technique should not be disturbed, while the work of muscles must be felt.
The basis of any workout aimed at adjusting the gluteus maximus muscle should be basic exercises. The most effective of them: attacks, squats, split-squat and deadlift.
Squats - this is one of the most effective and complex exercises in terms of techniques for their implementation. For mastering a weighting agent of the smallest weight( for example, a bar without a load) is necessary.
The deadlift can be performed with large weights and helps to improve the appearance of the gluteal region, as even a small buttock muscle will be involved.
When working on the muscles of the pelvic area, you can use not only weighting agents, but also various simulators and auxiliary items. Split-squat is an attack with the fixation of the non-working foot on the bench.
For more detailed, spot adjustment of the muscles of the buttocks, so-called isolated exercises are used. They are performed after the base. These include: the lifting of the pelvis, the press, the removal of the legs to the side.
The choice of the number of weekly workouts and their duration depends on the individual's preferences, characteristics and regime. You can train once a week, detailing a specific muscle( in our case, a large or a small gluteus muscle), you can divide the training into three stages, doing certain sets of exercises for different problem areas. The most important thing when choosing the intensity of training - do not overdo it, because it can lead to stretches of muscle tissue and prolonged pain in the buttocks.
In any case, even if you overtrained the muscle in the previous training, by the beginning of the next all the unpleasant sensations must pass. Aiming to work out the large and small muscles of the pelvis, do not forget about the proper nutrition, because the lack of such will lead to excessive accumulation of fat in the problem area and will make training, even regular and lengthy, useless.
The main task of training is improving the body as a whole and supporting a healthy physical form. Race for the aesthetic component of training is far from an end in itself. We examined the anatomy of the gluteus muscles.