Enlarged pancreas in a child: causes, diagnosis, treatment
The child's body is quite vulnerable to various diseases. After birth, the baby's organs begin to develop intensively, and immunity is strengthened. But sometimes the body fails - there are pathological changes in various organs, including the pancreas. If it is increased above the average, this is already a cause for concern.
This organ consists of the following parts:
- head - it protrudes slightly from behind the stomach and is covered by a loop formed by the duodenum;
- body is the largest department that is located behind the stomach, but between them is a glandular bag;The
- tail is the back of the organ that rests against the spleen.
The structure of the gland is represented by shares with a secret in them. Between them are nerve endings and blood vessels. Through the entire length of the organ passes the duct, which is used to enter the digestive secretions. Important functions of the gland are secretion of gastric juice and regulation of blood sugar.
If she does not cope with this, then there is a certain discomfort: flatulence, upset stomach, bloating and other troubles. Such symptoms indicate the development of a serious disease, which without timely treatment can lead to complications.
Dimensions of the gland
The normal size of the pancreas in a child depends mainly on his age. The newborn has an organ length of 5 cm or slightly larger. During the first six months of life, it increases only by 1 cm, up to a year it grows by 1 cm. Thus, the gland of a year-old child reaches a length of 7 cm, and the head diameter is one centimeter.
During the life of iron gradually increases in size. Within 10 years, its growth is very slow, increasing during this time by 2 times. The enlarged pancreas in a child can be observed during puberty, when it grows sharply by 8 cm. By the age of 18 this organ usually reaches standard sizes, reaching a length of 23 cm, width - 3 cm. Its circumference is 7 cm.
child, the doctor uses a special table to find out whether there are abnormalities of the gland from the norm. For this purpose, indicators such as weight, height, gender and age are taken into account. Depending on this, the norms of pancreatic size in a child should be as follows:
- body - 1-1.3 cm;
- head - 1,5-2,1 mm;
- tail - 1,7-2,4 mm.
Body size and appearance may indicate a variety of diseases.
Why is it necessary to examine children?
Children's problems associated with the increase of this body, in many ways similar to those that affect adults. Children of any age should be carefully examined in order to identify such a pathology in time. This is explained by the fact that the iron can grow several times, but not always in proportion.
It often happens that the growth of an organ does not always correspond to the accepted norms, but in relation to the other organs it will be proportional. In this case, it is in childhood that the congenital malformations of the pancreas and its increase are diagnosed for the first time.
The main causes of enlargement of the gland
The pancreas can have a total and local increase. In the first case, a proportional process is observed, and in the second case a certain part of the organ is affected. For example, the tail can change in size, and the head and body remain in a normal state.
The main reasons why the pancreas in children may increase is:
- closed abdominal injuries;
- ulcer of the mucosa;
- effect of toxins;
- abnormal development of the gland;
- autoimmune processes in the body;
- acute or chronic inflammation;
- cystic fibrosis;
- of duodenal disease.
A disproportionately increased pancreas in a child is observed in the following cases:Benign or malignant tumors;
What happens when an enlarged pancreas is diagnosed in children? Symptoms of pathology can vary. They are both pronounced and completely invisible. In this case, an additional examination is carried out.
With inflammation of the gland there is a brightly growing symptomatology. Tumors and cystic formations begin to manifest themselves after a rather long time. All these cases are accompanied by the following symptoms:
- aching or baking pains of varying intensity, arising at the top of the abdomen and giving to the arm or back;
- nausea, severe vomiting, bitter taste in the mouth, belching, lack of appetite;
- sudden temperature changes.
The enlarged pancreas in a child is a rather dangerous phenomenon, regardless of the reasons that led to it. There are other organs around it that can cause their compression. For example, the enlarged gland head begins to press on the 12-colon. There are also cases when the pathological organ promoted the appearance of intestinal obstruction.
Types of pancreatic disease
Quite often the developmental disorder of this organ is related to its shape, which can be in the form of a ring. Such an anomaly arises even during the laying of the gland at the stage of embryogenesis. It does not bring any discomfort to the child and is eliminated with the help of an easy operation.
Are there such situations when?except for such a violation?there are problems with other internal organs. This combination can cause severe complications leading to death. If at the time of this violation the child was not provided with timely assistance, at a later age the lumen of the duodenum begins to decrease, acute intestinal obstruction arises, and the bile ducts are squeezed.
Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas. This pathology is often detected in a child. Accompanying the disease is weight loss, decreased appetite, severe pain, etc. In children, it is able to disguise itself for diseases such as dysbiosis and gastritis, in this it is a significant difference from pancreatitis in adults.
In addition, there are other pancreatic diseases in children:
- body and tail cancer.
This disease is diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical symptoms, evaluation of endocrine gland activity and instrumental research results.
First the doctor asks the sick child about the presence of various disorders. When complaints about pain are determined by their nature and location. Also important is the hereditary factor, when in the family someone suffers from diabetes and other metabolic diseases.
When examined, the physician draws attention to the appearance of the patient, the color of the skin. Palpation of the organ is carried out when the patient is lying down. When a person is standing, the gland is practically not probed because of the deep position behind the stomach and intestines.
To diagnose, conduct a study of stool, which in case of disruption of the pancreas will have a number of characteristic features: light color and putrefactive odor. During the study of urine, enzymes of the gland can be detected. Also, a blood test is taken.
The anatomical structure of this organ is not very successful for examination, as it is located behind the stomach, in the upper part of the abdomen. It is best to have an ultrasound for a child, in which case you can estimate the size of the organ and examine it from different angles.
To prepare for the study, the child must give up fried and fatty foods, vegetables, fruits, milk. The last reception of products should be 12 hours before the procedure.
the child is held in a supine position, on the back. If you want to inspect any part of the body, the baby is allowed to turn on his side or stand up, the gel is applied to his stomach, due to which the sliding of the sensor is much easier.
It is important to pay attention to the contours of the gland: they must be clear. The size of the body is correlated with the data from the special table. Echogenicity of it in childhood can not be expressed. If this indicator is lower, then the probability of having an acute form of pancreatitis is high, and an increase indicates a chronic course of the disease or the presence of a tumor.
Treatment of the pancreas in children
Treatment of the organ can be conservative and operative, but it depends on the nature of the course of the disease. The general principles of therapy are as follows:
- it is necessary to observe the strictest diet, completely eliminating spicy, fatty or fried foods;
- to relieve swelling of the gland, it is recommended to apply cold warmers to the body;
- uses special inhibitors of the proton pump, hormones or blockers of special histamine receptors to minimize the secretory activity of the organ;
- to correct the work of the gland, additionally introduce artificial food enzymes;
- with the help of surgery removes the foci of inflammation or dead tissue.
Medical treatment of
An enlarged pancreas in a child requires medical therapy, which includes the use of the following medicines:
- Octreotide, which contains hormonal substance - somatostatin, which stops the excessive release of pancreatic juice.
- "Pirenzepin" - reduces the secretion of enzymes of the gland, restoring the cells of the organ.
- "Festal", "Pancreatin", "Mezim" - have in their composition enzymes of the body, helping him to digest food and eliminate pain.
- "Duspatalin" - reduces inflammation in the tissues, promotes the stimulation of the enzymes of the gland.
Pancreas treatment is also performed by antibiotics, corticosteroids and drugs that accelerate the outflow of enzymes of the gland.
In addition to medicines, an effective method of treatment is considered to be compliance with the diet, which is prescribed by the doctor, taking into account the age of the patient and the severity of the disease. First, it is recommended to eat frayed food and drink a lot. Then you need to include in the diet vegetables( potatoes, beets, carrots), foods containing protein( omelet, low-fat cottage cheese, dietary chicken or rabbit meat), vegetable oil.
Also, treatment of the pancreas with the help of diet provides for the consumption of rice, buckwheat, oatmeal, but sour soups and borscht are absolutely contraindicated.
Thus, if an increase in the pancreas in a child is found, it is necessary to start treatment of this pathology as soon as possible. Only in this case a favorable outcome is guaranteed without the onset of very serious complications.