Intraocular pressure - norm
In order to better imagine intraocular pressure( IOP), imagine a balloon. Its shape is maintained by the pressure of the air inside it. Similarly, due to the internal pressure arising as a result of ongoing biochemical processes, the shape of any organ in the human body is also determined. On this depends and the performance of their functions. Due to the simultaneous flow of two opposing processes - constant inflow and outflow of fluid inside the eyeball - and intraocular pressure is formed. The norm of IOP is in the range of 16-24 mm Hg. Art. Dangerous for the eyes as long-term elevated( glaucoma), and long-term low( hypotension) intraocular pressure.
What reasons can lead to its increase? If the liquid inside the eyeball is released in large quantities or if its outflow is disturbed, the result is an increase in intraocular pressure. Individual anatomical features of the structure of the eyes and diseases of the cardiovascular system can also give rise to changes in IOP.
If intraocular pressure is increased for a long time, metabolic processes inside the eye are disrupted, optic nerve cells and retinal cells die. All this takes place imperceptibly for a person, since it starts from peripheral areas. Slowly and gradually narrowing the field of vision, and the result can be complete blindness. Therefore, it is very important to know the symptoms, when it occurs, you should visit a specialist and measure the intraocular pressure. The norm can be exceeded if the eyes quickly get tired, if you constantly feel heaviness in them, if you often have a headache. It is not necessary to explain this by usual fatigue, the risk of developing a serious disease is too great. After forty years, an examination with an oculist, including the measurement of IOP, checking the visual field and the state of the optic nerve, is recommended to be performed annually.
How to measure intraocular pressure?
Sometimes people postpone a visit to an ophthalmologist because they are afraid of IOP measurement procedures. Perhaps this is because the traditional method of measuring intraocular pressure is really not very pleasant. An anesthetic is instilled in the eye, a weight drops on the surface of the eye, then the doctor determines the level of IOP in the degree of deflection of the cornea. This method is complicated, requires careful disinfection of the weight to prevent infection of patients, and not too accurate. The method of contactless tonometry is deprived of unpleasant sensations( the patient feels only a slight movement of air) and excludes infection.
To reduce IOP, the doctor will prescribe drops. The treatment process is long and, despite its seeming simplicity, requires constant monitoring. Firstly, not to miss the occurrence of side effects, and secondly, over time, the eyes can get used to the drops. In these cases, the doctor will change the treatment schedule. In addition, it may also happen that not a single drop will have the proper effect on the intraocular pressure, its rate may not recover for a long time. In this case, an operation( laser or microsurgical) is performed to create new ways of fluid outflow from the eye.
Remember that, although glaucoma can not limit the visual load, there are other contraindications. For example, you can not drink liquids more than 2 liters per day, lift weights, and also be in the upside down position.
Lowered intraocular pressure is less common than increased, and usually is not an independent disease. Most often it develops against the backdrop of inflammatory processes and eye injuries. However, it is no less dangerous. Due to the decrease in IOP, the eye nutrition is disturbed, and this eventually leads to the death of the eye tissues.
It is dangerous both increased and low for a long time intraocular pressure. Norm, recall, is in the range from 16 to 24 mm Hg. Art. What to do if you have found signs of intraocular pressure( increased or decreased)?Of course, immediately consult a doctor-oculist.