Enzyme that breaks down proteins. What are the functions of proteins?
In the human body, the protein content in the right quantities is a natural necessity for its normal functioning. This component ensures the growth of absolutely all cells of the body due to the fact that it contains in sufficient quantities the necessary amino acids. An important role is played by the protein in the replication of RNA and DNA molecules. What are the functions of proteins in the body? Which enzymes are responsible for their cleavage? These and other questions are answered in the article.
What is the protein
Proteins are the most important nutrients for people, contained in various foods. In another way protein in medicine is also called protein. This very term is very often found in the recommendations of experienced doctors.
What role do proteins play in the human body?
Protein is very important for maintaining muscle volume of a person's body. It will also be useful in the case of restoration of damaged tissue sites, which often occurs with severe bruises or with frostbite and burns. Also, the protein perfectly copes with maintaining a healthy state of hair or nails.
For good and stable functioning of the immune system, the protein is virtually indispensable.
What are the main functions of the protein
So, what are the functions of the proteins in the body? One can single out the following:
- catalytic function - with the help of it it is possible to control the chemical reactions occurring in biological systems;
- transport function - transfer to all organs and tissues of the oxygen they need;
- protective function is based on the fact that the protein in the blood has a tendency to clotting, which protects the human body from excessive loss of blood in case of possible injuries;
- contractile function is responsible for the contraction of the muscles of the human body with the direct participation of actin and myosin proteins;
- structural function ensures the formation of biomembrane cells;
- hormonal function conducts proper separation of nutrients within the body with the help of hormones;
- nutritional function provides with the help of proteins the right amount of calories for human life, and this is what gives him the opportunity to get the necessary energy and physical strength.
Who should be the most used protein
People who are actively involved in a particular sport, it is strongly recommended that their doctors and trainers use as much as possible food that contains enough protein. On average, according to research by doctors, professional athletes need a protein content of 2 to 3 grams per kilogram of their body.
Which products most of all contain the protein
The most protein is contained in soy - 100 grams of this product accounts for approximately 34 grams of protein. If we take as an example other products, then its approximate content may differ significantly. Below are the main products that contain protein in sufficient quantities, namely:
- cheese - from 14 to 20 grams per 100 grams of product;
- fish - from 12 to 16 grams;
- meat - from 14 to 20 grams;Beans and peas are
- - in them this figure is about 20 grams.
But in order to ensure that the body receives protein in the required amount, it is more effective to eat meat and dishes on a milk basis. The fact is that they contain the full amino acids. But with beans or peas, and also with almost all products of vegetable origin, the situation is somewhat different. They contain within themselves an incomplete set of amino acids. Soy, in contrast to all other crops, is somewhat successful here. The protein that it contains has the most valuable properties. After soy, you can also isolate the protein of lentils.
What negative consequences can lead to a lack and excess of protein in the body
If the body is not saturated with protein, there may be a violation of the liver, small intestine or pancreas. Also, this problem can have a negative impact on the functioning of the nervous system.
With an overabundance of protein, it is able to gradually accumulate in the body. Excess liver protein processes into glucose and a variety of nitrogenous compounds, which is also very negatively reflected on the kidneys.
Some enzymes that break down the proteins
But what should we do to ensure that the level of proteins in the body does not exceed the required limits? An important role is played by enzymes that split this component. The main enzymes, which are assigned to this "mission", include sucrose, lactose and amylase. The proportion of amylase in this case is a large part, about 90% of the total content of organic substances. It is an enzyme that breaks down proteins, which copes with proteins that have complex carbohydrates in their chemical composition.
Splitting of proteins in the stomach
Splitting of the protein in the stomach is a multi-step process. About 97% of proteins that have been cleaved are absorbed as free amino acids directly into human blood.
Due to its enzymatic apparatus, the gastrointestinal tract easily breaks down proteins into so-called peptide bonds of molecules. All this happens in stages, as well as exclusively in the selective manner. In the case of detachment of one amino acid from a protein molecule, a peptide and an amino acid are formed. After this, another amino acid is cleaved from the peptide after a certain time, then the next. Such an action occurs until the molecule completely, without residue, is cleaved to an amino acid.
Pepsin: function and main action
Pepsin has its main purpose in the human body, due to the proper distribution of food, as well as its further conversion to peptides and various amino acids. In the stomach is formed as a result of the natural synthesis of the pepsinogen pepticene pepsin.
Protein of vegetable origin( obtained from the use of peas, beans and other crops), as well as from meat, cheese, milk and other products obtained from animals, is easily cleaved by pepsin.
What are the properties of pepsin? It has an interesting function. The fact is that pepsin is able to turn off milk, converting it into casein and caseinogen. In this way cheeses and other products made on the basis of milk are often produced.
Pepsin is also widely used in medicine. They can treat such diseases as a stomach ulcer, chronic gastritis, stomach cancer. Pepsin, whose function is now considered, is also quite effective, and for problems with the digestive tract. In this case, it is used as a kind of substitution therapy.
When applying pepsin( an enzyme that breaks down proteins) inside, it is necessary to take into account its high activity in an acid medium. If the acidity of the stomach is reduced, use this drug should be. If pepsin is in the form of a powder, then it should be dissolved in 100 ml of water or in hydrochloric acid( 1-3% solution), and if in the form of a tablet, dissolve it in water.
Doctors recommend using pepsin 2 to 3 times a day. And it is desirable to do this before eating. The average dose is from 0.2 to 0.5 grams. However, for a child, it should be significantly reduced - it will be enough to use from 0.1 to 0.08 grams of this medication.
A person suffering from a gastritis or a stomach ulcer, the action of pepsin for good will not work. In this case, its use is strictly prohibited.
Trypsin: function of the enzyme
What is trypsin? This is another unique enzyme that breaks down proteins and peptides. Moreover, it has the function of hydrolysis of esters. The main function of trypsin is that it perfectly controls the digestive process.
Treats trypsin such diseases as bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis. It can be used for burns, in the presence of various purulent wounds, and also after operations. In dentistry with diseases of the oral cavity this preparation is also very useful.
Side effects that can occur with trypsin are associated with increased body temperature. If trypsin has been administered by inhalation, irritation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract can result.
Apply trypsin, the function of which is discussed in the article, preferably no more than twice a day for 0.01 grams. Children are encouraged to use it once a day, with only 0.0025 grams.
It is also possible to apply a cloth impregnated with trypsin to the wound after treatment with alcohol or green. Such a cloth should be on the damaged place for at least a day. In this situation, trypsin( an enzyme that breaks down proteins and peptides) serves as a kind of protection against various kinds of infections.
Protease is an enzyme, more precisely a whole group of enzymes that are found in gastric juice. They in turn are produced by the pancreas. In addition, protease is also present in the intestine. The main function of the protease is the effective cleavage of protein in the body.
Basic proteolytic enzyme pancreatin
There are a number of enzymes that actively participate in the process of digestion, and also successfully remove any inflammatory processes. They also include pancreatin, which minimizes the negative effects of allergies in humans on certain products. Also, when internal diseases arise, pancreatin is best for their treatment.
However, people who are experiencing enzyme deficiency are encouraged to use those drugs that contain several different enzymes. They can be safely classified as active biological additives. But such medicines must be carefully taken and observed at the same time a certain periodicity. It is advisable to do it on the basis of the urgent recommendation of the treating doctor according to his prescriptions. It is not worthwhile to show one's own initiative in this situation. In particular, this is very dangerous, if a person is not endowed with certain knowledge in the field of medicine. Remember, self-medication can only aggravate the situation, and it is impossible to determine the lack of protein and enzymes in the body without medical intervention. Be healthy!