Intoxication pathological: causes and treatment
Many people perceive alcohol as a means to relieve stress, anxiety or fatigue. This approach is totally unacceptable. Alcohol never helps get out of difficult situations. In addition, the abuse of alcohol often causes many problems, one of which is pathological intoxication. This is a change in consciousness when a person loses touch with reality. In this state, he is able to commit not only absurd actions, but also cruel crimes. This article will discuss the main causes and methods of treatment of this disorder.
From the medical point of view pathological intoxication is a short-term psychotic disorder that arises from the intake of alcohol. It is characterized by twilight turbidity of consciousness, pronounced changes in behavior. This is a unique reaction of the body, reminiscent of the state after the use of certain groups of drugs( barbiturates, benzodiazepines).Experts in the field of narcology believe that the basis of this pathology may be the previous craniocerebral lesions. The danger of the state lies in its sudden development. The pronounced aggression of a person can lead to harm to other people.
Causes of the phenomenon
The condition of pathological intoxication is not always developed due to the abuse of alcoholic beverages. Sometimes it is preceded by the intake of alcohol in small quantities. According to psychiatrists and narcologists, the following factors can provoke such an organism reaction:
- excessive psychoemotional stress;
- chronic lack of sleep;
- craniocereberal trauma;
- depletion of a mental or physical nature;
- panic attacks.
Of course, in the role of the trigger mechanism for pathological intoxication is alcohol. In itself, the disorder is not a kind of traditional drunken state. This is an independent phenomenon, the development of which can be preceded by certain pathogenetic factors from the list mentioned above.
Manifestations of psychotic disorder
The pathological form of intoxication develops against the background of already existing signs of alcohol use( slurred speech, staggering gait).Relative adequacy sharply gives way to motor and speech hyperactivity. The former symptoms of intoxication disappear. A person conditionally sozveset, but at the same time loses responsibility for the actions performed.
His face expresses anxiety, fear or confusion. However, the ability to perform logical and targeted actions remains. Also, the ability of speech contact with others is not lost. Despite disorientation in space, a person can hide, run away from enemies or take aggressive actions against them.
The duration of the condition of pathological intoxication can not be accurately determined. It starts quickly and ends unexpectedly. After this, a person usually sinks into a deep sleep, and the next morning he does not remember anything. It can not restore the order of his actions and actions.
Varieties of disorder
Doctors distinguish two forms of intoxication pathological: epileptoid and paranoid. Forensic psychiatrists in their practice use another version of the disorder - alcoholic catatonia. What are the symptoms of each of these forms?
Epileptoid pathological intoxication is accompanied by sudden disorientation in space. Man completely loses touch with reality. He becomes suspicious and evil. Movements are made "on the machine", differ sharpness and rudeness. The patient is usually silent in a fit of aggression, sometimes mumbling something. Criticism and comprehension of perfect actions are absent.
The paranoid form of the disorder is characterized by a sudden impairment of consciousness. Man is in a state of great agitation. His movements are impulsive, accompanied by affective reactions in the form of anger. This version of pathological intoxication is inherent in a sudden onset and the same ending with the transition to deep sleep.
In the case of alcoholic catatonia, a person "frozen" in some kind of action is observed. He can constantly repeat words or sentences, not paying attention to others and their actions. Attempts to enter into contact with him are unproductive.
There are other forms of alcoholic intoxication, which in their symptoms resemble pathological. In the commission of illegal actions, their differential diagnosis rises to the forefront. From the final decision of forensic psychiatrists the sanity / insanity of the patient depends.
At the time of diagnosis the paramount role is played by the signs of pathological intoxication. The use of a small amount of alcoholic beverages, a sharp change in consciousness, pronounced motor hyperactivity while maintaining normal coordination of movements - these distinctive criteria are characteristic of the disorder. Sometimes this condition is accompanied by delirium and hallucinations. The study of the clinical picture also takes into account partial or complete amnesia.
Differential diagnosis is carried out with various forms of alcohol intoxication: depressive, impulsive, dysphoric and others. The specialist who is engaged in the survey should have high qualifications and be able to distinguish the symptoms of the listed pathologies. For example, single cries of obscene words can be mistaken for crazy ideas. If the patient reacts to external stimuli, and its behavior is traced a certain dynamics, this clinical picture indicates a normal alcohol syndrome. Not all doctors can trace the fine line between the manifestations of violations.
Especially difficult pathological form of the disorder and complicated intoxication differentiate with chronic alcoholism. In the latter case, there is often a change in the clinical picture towards aggression. The setting of a definitive diagnosis always causes difficulties. Narcologists and forensic psychiatrists are not able to observe human behavior, usually their conclusions are based on the testimony of other people.
What should I do after my diagnosis? Treatment options for
Patients with a diagnosis of "pathological alcohol intoxication" should be immediately hospitalized. In this state, he poses a threat not only to others, but also to himself. Therefore, when signs appear that indicate a disorder, a health team should be called up.
The patient is selected by the doctor in the hospital. Usually "Promazin" is immediately assigned to prevent psychosis. It is a drug of sleeping pills. After awakening, detoxification therapy begins. As a rule, it includes intravenous fructose to accelerate sobering. In the composition of the infusion solution add vitamins of group B, "Levozan" and "Benadon".Nootropics and hepatoprotectors are also part of the treatment for pathological intoxication.
Carrying out of therapy is possible only in a hospital of the appropriate direction. Usually this is a narcological dispensary. The treatment program takes a long time, includes psychotherapeutic and medicamental effects. If you follow the recommendations of a doctor, the prognosis for recovery is in most cases positive.
There is no liability for a person with this disorder for their actions, so it is difficult for him to be charged with the acts committed. In this case, it is necessary to recall again the question of how difficult it is to differentiate intoxication pathological from the usual.
In the first case, a person loses control over motor activity, psychological adequacy. Therefore, the responsibility for the actions is lost in full. Often the patient does not even try to hide the crime and completely does not remember its details. Forensic experts recognize persons who committed an offense in a state of pathological intoxication, insane. Criminal liability in relation to such patients does not apply.
What is dangerous drunkenness pathological?
A person in this state can not control and evaluate their actions. Therefore, it becomes dangerous for themselves and their loved ones. The phase of sleep can come at any time. It is this period after active wakefulness that often causes injury or death. Many violent crimes were committed under the influence of minor doses of alcohol.
The only effective option for the prevention of pathological intoxication is a complete refusal of alcohol. Only the exclusion of alcoholic beverages will help to avoid unpredictable consequences and a similar condition. Also a sober way of life will save from unbearable shame, which is often observed on the day after the deed.
Pathological intoxication means an acute condition that develops in people who do not drink alcoholic beverages. For him, the appearance of a distorted perception of the surrounding reality is typical. The person becomes irritable. Everything around him seems hostile and menacing. The duration of pathological intoxication is difficult to determine. The logical conclusion of the disorder is the patient's dream. After waking up, he usually does not remember anything. As the main measure to combat the disorder, detoxification therapy is used.