Thrombocytopenia in children: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
Many children are recently ill with serious diseases, which often have a detrimental effect on their development. A couple of decades ago, few people heard of such a disease as thrombocytopenia, and now it is increasingly being detected in newborns. But what is thrombocytopenia in children, what provokes its development and how does it manifest itself?
Thrombocytopenia: what is this pathology?
Thrombocytopenia is an unusual and mysterious disease that can manifest itself as a symptom indicative of another serious and dangerous pathology( cancer, HIV) or an independent disease. In addition, the disease can manifest itself in the form of an allergic reaction of the body to any kind of substance. Also, this pathology can suffer people who abuse alcohol, or received a huge dose of radiation. Proceeding from this, it can be concluded that thrombocytopenia in children and adults can be caused by various causes, and only an experienced doctor and modern diagnostic methods will allow to know exactly what triggered her appearance.
Thrombocytopenia in childhood is a pathology, during which blood levels of platelets decrease, and they, in turn, are responsible for clotting of blood. Platelets are blood plates that, when the integrity of the vessel surface is violated, rushes to the site of injury and closes the wound, stopping the bleeding.
What triggers thrombocytopenia in children?
Most often, thrombocytopenia in children is an inherited pathology, for example, in the syndromes of Bernard-Soulier, Viscot-Aldrich, Fanconi and others. Also in childhood, this ailment can provoke an increased function of the spleen - hypersplenism. And all because of the fact that this is the body where blood cells that have worked their time are being processed.
Decreased platelet count may indicate that a person has blood cancer. When all the blood-forming processes in the bone marrow completely cease, at the same time the patient has a shortage of other components of the blood.
Classification of thrombocytopenia
The disease is divided into two forms:
- Primary - accompanied only by the appearance of thrombocytopenic syndrome, while other diseases of internal organs are absent. Thrombocytopenia purpura, idiopathic and hemolytic-uremic syndrome are all pathologies of the primary form.
- Secondary is manifested as a complication after the main pathology, for example HIV, liver cirrhosis or leukemia.
Depending on whether the immune component is present in the causes of thrombocytopenia or not, two more forms are identified:
- Immune thrombocytopenia - appears in the rapid destruction of platelets under the influence of antibodies. In such a state, human immunity can not correctly recognize platelets, takes them for a foreign body and produces antibodies against them, which block them, thereby aggravating the patient's already complex condition.
- A non-immune form can develop in the case of mechanical damage to platelets, this most often occurs with extracorporeal circulation or with Marietaafa-Mikeli disease.
Most often, it is immune thrombocytopenia manifested in children, and divide it into several groups.
Groups of immune thrombocytopenia
There are 4 main groups of immune thrombocytopenia:
- Isoimmune is a form in which platelets are destroyed by incompatibility in one of the group blood systems. It can also be caused by transfusion to the recipient with other people's platelets in the presence of antibodies to them or the penetration of antibodies to the child through the womb of the mother.
- Transimmune - occurs when the autoantibodies of a mother who suffers from an autoimmune form pass through the placenta, and after birth, thrombocytopenia appears immediately in newborn infants.
- Heteroimmune - this group is associated with malfunctions in the antigenic structure of the platelet, which occur under the influence of the virus or the appearance of a new type of antibody.
- Autoimmune is a group in which antibodies are produced against their own unchanged type of antibodies.
But what provokes the appearance of the disease, what causes lead to it, in addition to the hereditary factor?
Causes of thrombocytopenia
The most common thrombocytopenia in children can be caused by such causes:
- Insufficient amount of microelements in the body.
- Allergic reaction to products from the outside world.
- Autoimmune process in the body.
- Another pathology, most often this is HIV, cirrhosis or leukemia.
But not only diseases and external factors can cause illness, it can also be triggered by taking medications that have been prescribed to the patient.
Which medications can trigger the development of thrombocytopenia?
As practice has shown and numerous studies by scientists, very often thrombocytopenia in young children appears due to the use of medicines of the following groups:
- Antibiotics, most often "Levomycetin" or sulfonamides.
- Diuretics - "Furosemide" or "Hydrochlorothiazide".
- Anticonvulsant drug "Phenobarbital".
- Antipsychotics - "Prochlorperazine" or "Meprobamate".
- Antithyroid drugs - "Tiamazol".
- Preparations against diabetes - "Glibenclamide" and "Glipizide."
- Anti-inflammatory drugs - "Indomethacin".
But what symptoms can indicate that the patient has thrombocytopenia?
Symptoms of the disease
Each patient can have different thrombocytopenia, the causes and treatment are thus also individual, but most often the symptoms are very similar in most people:
- Hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes. It appears as red spots of small size. They are especially noticeable in those places where clothes rub most of all about the body. These spots do not cause pain or any discomfort, do not protrude above the surface of the skin or mucous membranes. They can both be point-like and occupy large areas. There may also appear bruising of red, blue or even a greenish-yellow hue.
- Frequent bleeding from the nose. The mucous nasal is abundantly supplied with blood, and there is a large number of capillaries in it. Due to a decrease in the formation of platelets, the fragility of the capillaries increases, so any sneezing, minor injuries or colds can provoke bleeding, which can last more than 10 minutes.
- Bleeding gums. Many people get small bleeding during brushing, but in diseased patients this symptom is very pronounced, develops over a larger area of the gums and lasts long enough.
- Bleeding in the stomach and intestines. They arise because of the fragility of the vessels, and even hard food can provoke them. As a result, blood can come out with feces.
- Blood in the urine. This symptom appears due to the fact that there is a hemorrhage on the mucosa of the bladder and on the ways of urine output.
- Abundant and long monthly for girls. In the normal state, the duration of the menstrual cycle is 3-5 days, and with thrombocytopenia, menstruation can last two or even three times longer, and bleeding is abundant.
- Long bleeding after tooth extraction. In a normal state, after 20 minutes it stops, and if a patient has thrombocytopenia, it can last much longer, and all because of the lack of platelets in the body and they can not cope with their task quickly.
Do not forget that it can have completely different thrombocytopenia causes. And everyone is treated individually. The disease can also be manifested by the symptoms that are characteristic of the pathology that provoked it. During the diagnosis, they need to be considered.
If the doctor has noticed the patient's characteristic symptoms of the disease, then primarily he appoints a clinical blood test, with which you can find out the level of platelets in the blood. Pay attention to the indicators of the number of other bodies - erythrocytes and leukocytes. It is the determination of the level of platelets and is the main method of diagnosing a disease such as thrombocytopenia in children up to a year or older.
Currently, all people with HIV are advised to regularly take a clinical blood test. Doctors recommend to undergo a screening every six months and, in addition to the general test, take more and more: for immune status and viral load.
There are 5 main factors that influence the diagnosis:
- The absence of any symptoms in early childhood.
- No symptoms of hereditary forms of thrombocytopenia.
- If there are no clinical manifestations in relatives.
- Efficacy of the glucocorticosteroid form of treatment at certain dosages.
- If possible, the detection of antiplatelet antibodies.
But how to treat thrombocytopenia in children, which methods are more effective? Folk medicine than can help with this diagnosis and can it?
Therapeutic methods for thrombocytopenia
Treatment of a patient from thrombocytopenia directly depends on what causes led to this pathology. Only correctly diagnosed will allow us to select more effective methods of therapy. Today, doctors use several treatment options:
- Drug administration.
- Surgical intervention.
- Treatment by folk methods.
In some cases, you do not need to treat the disease, it passes by itself. For example, thrombocytopenia secondary is mild in children with a slight decrease in platelet count. In this situation, the doctor can prescribe to the patient only a vitamin complex and preparations for general strengthening of the organism.
As for pregnant women who have this disease, they should not cause serious illness. Women who carry a baby often suffer from the fact that they have a very low level of platelets in the blood. After childbirth, and some even during pregnancy, the level of these bodies comes back to normal and without any treatment. The most dangerous is considered immune thrombocytopenia, it is very important to properly treat it.
Treatment of immune thrombocytopenia
The immune form of the disease is considered one of the most serious, besides this, it is also the most common. The pathology develops against the background of weakened immunity, caused by the fact that the child has been ill with influenza, ARVI or is an HIV-infected patient. In addition, the reason for the appearance of this form of ailment can be and uncontrolled by the doctor taking medications.
In addition to the immune form, autoimmune often occurs, which also occurs due to malfunctions in the immune system. To cure this disease, most often recommended the use of immunosuppressive drugs. Also, a doctor can prescribe glucocorticosteroid drugs, because it is thanks to them that the platelet count increases.
In those cases where thrombocytopenia was caused by a virus or infection, the first thing to do is cure a disease that caused a decrease in the platelet count. Perhaps after the therapy everything will return to normal.
HIV-infected patients deserve special attention. It's just so necessary that parents carefully monitor their health and follow all the doctor's recommendations clearly.
In some cases, in the treatment of thrombocytopenia, an operation is recommended, namely the removal of the spleen. But this method is used only as a last resort, if the patient has a risk of bleeding. As practice has shown, most children after surgery, if any, have excellent results.
But not only traditional medicine helps in treatment, folk methods are also effective.
Folk methods in the treatment of thrombocytopenia
Treatment of thrombocytopenia in children with folk remedies gives excellent results, especially the use of sesame oil. It regulates the level of platelets in the blood. It is simply eaten 10 grams to three times a day.
Also helps infusion verbena. Prepare it this way: 5 g Verbena pour a glass of boiling water, wrapped in a towel and leave to infuse for 30 minutes. Take it for one month a glass a day in small portions.
Do not forget about preventive measures that will help protect against thrombocytopenia.
Those children who are already ill or have a tendency to this ailment should follow preventive measures:
- Avoid all situations that could result in injury.
- Parents need to adjust the diet of children.
- Do not take "Aspirin" and other drugs that belong to the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Parents should carefully monitor what their children eat, what medicines the doctor prescribes. When contacting a polyclinic, even with an ordinary cold, the treating doctor must know about the diagnosis.
Summing up, it must be said that only regular adherence to all the doctor's recommendations, taking all medications and preventative measures will help a child with thrombocytopenia feel good and do not consider themselves restrained. Parents of such children should pay more attention to their babies and constantly take them to the doctor for an examination. In fact, there are a lot of such small patients in our country, but they all live a full life, and their illness does not bother.