How is rubella transmitted? Routes of rubella transmission
In this article, we will talk about how rubella is transmitted, as well as the specifics of the spread of this disease. In addition, consider the nature of the disease and its types. Special attention will be paid to preventive measures, because if you spend them on time, infection can be avoided.
What is rubella?
Before answering the question: "How is rubella transmitted to adults?", It is necessary to give a complete description of this disease.
Rubella refers to infectious diseases of acute form, which is characterized by a strong fever, a runny nose, a slight cough, an increase in lymph nodes and their soreness. The main symptom is the appearance of rashes on the skin. The danger of pathology is that the incubation period can last almost a month. But while the infected is the carrier and distributor of the virus. People of all ages are afflicted with the disease, but children up to 10 years are most often infected.
Determination of rubella
As already noted, rubella refers to viral diseases. From the point of view of diagnostics, this pathology is rather complicated, since it has the same symptoms as measles, rash with rash, parvovirus B19, dengue fever, herpes viruses, Coxsackie, and scarlet fever.
In childhood it can be completely asymptomatic or with mild signs. Adults endure much heavier, symptoms appear brighter. And the first signs are manifested even before the onset of the rash. Usually, lymphatic posterior and occipital nodes become seriously inflamed. This is the main sign of the onset of the disease. Complications occur in adults more often than in children. The case can even reach encephalitis.
Types of rubella
It is very important to know how rubella is transmitted in adults, since this may determine the type of disease, and consequently, its further treatment. So, two types of rubella are distinguished:
- Congenital( ICS) - in this case, infection occurs in utero, the cause is infection of the mother during pregnancy. A very dangerous variety, as it threatens serious pathologies in the development of internal systems and organs of the fetus.
- Acquired - infection occurs after the virus enters the human body. The course of the disease in this form is characterized by an average condition and a rapid recovery.
The prevalence of rubella
Before the rubella vaccine was developed, people around the world suffered from it. The disease was at the level of endemia, and epidemics flared every 5-10 years. And all because of the fact that rubella is transmitted by airborne droplets.
By 2002, almost 60% of all countries in the world had included rubella vaccination in their national immunization programs. Most of them use a two-dose scheme. Thanks to this rubella is practically eradicated in the territory of these states. Nevertheless, the viruses of this disease are not completely eradicated, and it is very easy to infect it to a person who has not been vaccinated. Therefore, local outbreaks of the disease sometimes occur, especially in the cold season.
How is rubella transmitted? The source of the disease can only become a person who has become sick. At the same time it will not be contagious all the time of the disease, but only in the first weeks. At this time, the symptoms may not yet manifest, and he may not even know that he is sick and infects others. This is especially true for children, they are much easier to tolerate rubella, but adults are so unlucky. And the disease can permanently disable a person. Especially dangerous are various complications.
Transmission paths for
So, how is rubella transmitted to children? Let's list the main variants of the transmission of the virus:
- Air-drop method, the most common and famous. I heard about it for sure.
- Through direct contact, that is, handshakes or items that a sick person has given to a healthy person.
- Nasopharyngeal secretions can also become excellent conduits for the virus.
The average incubation period( the time when the disease does not manifest itself) on average lasts from 14 to 17 days. In some cases, this period can be increased to 21 days.
How is rubella transmitted from a child to an adult
The mechanisms of infection do not differ from those described above. The only thing to consider is that infected infants often excrete a large number of pathogenic bacteria along with urine and pharyngeal secretions. The virus is able to keep vital activity out of the carrier's body for a fairly long period, so you can get infected by contacting only with different secretions of the patient patient.
In this regard, all the diapers and clothes of the child must be necessarily processed after contact with the baby. Do not dispose of used disposable hygiene products in public garbage cans. Usually this is the responsibility of the medical staff, but if the child is treated at home, care for this will fall on the shoulders of the parents.
Rubella: How is it transmitted through third parties?
This question most often worries pregnant women and those who are just planning a pregnancy, but do not have the opportunity to vaccinate.
So, can I get infected from my friends who have school-age children? From the theoretical point of view, this is quite possible. It is not necessary that your girlfriend will also get infected. If they have strong immunity, they already had rubella or were vaccinated, then they are not threatened. But the subjects with which the child was in contact can become a delayed-action mine. It is enough just to pick up a pen or toy that was in the hands of the infected - and the virus will penetrate into your body.
There have been cases when children from different classes who visited the same classrooms at different times, but did not contact each other, were infected because they were sitting at one desk.
Also, a pregnant woman can come to a friend, whose infected child is not in the house at the moment, but to pick up rubella. Therefore, it is better to avoid communication even with those who can become an indirect cause of the disease. The danger is that you can communicate with the child and not know that he is already infected.
Degree of susceptibility to the disease
Now we know if rubella is transmitted through third parties. Now let's talk about how people are susceptible to this disease and how long the patient remains contagious after infection.
Unfortunately, rubella is a highly contagious disease. Patients are able to isolate the virus all the time before the onset of the rash and at least 4 days after the onset. Infants with a congenital rubella type may be infectious for several months. But the immunity after the transferred disease is saved for life.
Children born to women with immunity to the disease are usually protected from it up to 7-9 months. But this is only on condition that the child is not on artificial feeding. In order to understand how much your baby will be protected in utero and after birth, you can conduct a special test for the presence of antibodies lgG.Blood is taken from women already pregnant or preparing for conception. As a result, a risk group is identified, that is, seronegative women.
Therefore, it is advisable to pass this test to all who plan a pregnancy. With low immunity, it is necessary to vaccinate. Do not vaccinate during pregnancy. Therefore, if you have any doubts about the strength of your immunity, eliminate them before conception.
Rubella in pregnant women
We know how rubella is transmitted, and we understand that it is very easy to catch it. However, the most terrible disease is for pregnant women, since the fetus most suffers from the virus. The outcome of the infection will in any case be unfavorable. Firstly, because adults, as we wrote above, carry the infection much harder, and it's not easy for a pregnant woman to cope with the changes that occur with her body. Secondly, due to intrauterine changes, viruses penetrate the placenta into the bloodstream and infect the baby. Therefore, it is so important during pregnancy to minimize all possible contacts with children, if you have weak immunity. And remember, you can get infected and not from direct contact with the sick.
Consequences of rubella in pregnancy
When you learn how rubella is transmitted, you need to understand what it is dangerous for expectant mothers. Let's see what consequences can be expected depending on the time:
- Infection occurred in the first trimester. This is the most unfavorable period, because at this stage there is an active division of cells and the formation of internal organs. Therefore, the percentage of the birth of a child with congenital pathologies of development is very large. This leads to disability, various disabilities of the body, as well as death at a very early age. Infection with rubella at this time often becomes the reason for the appointment of abortions. Sometimes a miscarriage happens by itself.
- After 21 weeks, the risk for the fetus is reduced. During this period, the woman will no longer face an artificial termination of pregnancy even if the fetus is infected. The fact is that the risk of developing pathologies is reduced to zero.
In any case, a pregnant woman who develops rubella enters the risk group and enhances observation of the development of the embryo. Be sure to prescribe a course of therapy, which includes only drugs allowed for pregnant women. Among them should be antibiotics, analgesics, antiseptics.
Disease is dangerous not only for the child, but also for the mother. Therefore, observation is conducted during the whole period. But the most dangerous moment is childbirth, because sepsis, bleeding and other unwanted complications can begin. If the process has passed safely and the child has survived, he will already be infected and will have the ability to infect others.
90% of children born to mothers who have recovered from infection during the first trimester are born with CRS( congenital rubella syndrome).If the disease appeared after the 20th week of pregnancy, the risk of giving birth to an infected child is only 20%.
The most dangerous is rubella, which occurred without any clinical manifestations. This, though rare, but it happens. Then the doctors until the last remain unprepared for the fact that the birth of a child can be accompanied by pathologies and other problems.
In addition, the harmful effects of rubella can be detected not immediately after birth. For example, deafness or dumbness is detected only in 2-3 years of life. Late manifestations also include insulin-dependent diabetes.
Finding out how rubella is transmitted, you need to understand how to protect it from it. The most effective way is vaccination. It is usually held in childhood. If you are not vaccinated, then be sure to get vaccinated before pregnancy.
To avoid the spread of the virus, the patient should be isolated from others for a week after the onset of the first rashes. In the kindergarten, quarantine is not announced, but it is better for pregnant women not to contact these children in the coming month.
All rubies are vaccinated against rubella. The injection is administered subcutaneously, the immunity is formed within 20 days after this and is retained for the next 20 years.
How are measles and whooping cough transmitted?
Is rubella transmitted? Of course, yes. But what about other infectious diseases like her? Let's talk a little bit about measles and whooping cough. These diseases are also very dangerous.
The mechanism of infection in pertussis and measles is exactly the same as that of rubella. That is, the virus is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person. But it can spread through things that belonged to the infected person. These pathologies unite and something else - they are mainly affected by children, and they have a fairly long incubation period, during which the infected spreads the infection. Therefore, if you do not want to become infected, refrain from contacting them. This primarily applies to pregnant women. All infectious diseases are extremely dangerous for the development of the fetus and can cause irreparable harm.
Measles, rubella, whooping cough are transmitted by touch, and also by airborne droplets. In general, refrain from visiting those places where there are often small children. Then the risk of infection will be minimized, and you do not have to undergo treatment for this unpleasant and dangerous disease. Especially beware of dangerous places in the waiting period of the baby.