Dropper system: types and methods of installation
Infusion therapy( or the administration of medications and blood to a patient using a dropper system) is recognized as one of the effective treatment methods. A dropper is a medical device with which a fairly large volume of liquid is injected into the body of an individual. One end of it is connected to a vial or a package containing a medicine or blood, and the other to a patient's vein. Distinguish the following types of systems:
- dropper for blood transfusion( or abbreviated - PC);
- for transfusion of solutions - PR.
Catheters for droppers
These medical products are used to inject drugs into the bloodstream for a long period. A catheter is a small, hollow tube that is inserted into a vein in different parts of the body( arms, head, collarbone).With its help, trauma to the veins is excluded. Installation is carried out in stationary conditions. There are several types of dropper catheters:
- Butterfly system. This medical product is a needle with plastic wings at the base. Their purpose is to attach the catheter to the patient's skin. The advantage of such a system is the ease of use and setting. The drawbacks include the fact that the needle is constantly in the vein, exposing it to injury with careless movement. The product is used quite often in cases of single administration of drugs, taking up no more than two hours.
- For peripheral veins. This kind is intended for long-term use. Made of a product of thin plastic. The needle is used only to puncture the vein and to install the catheter. Of the pluses, it should be noted that the patient in the future does not experience any inconvenience, since the product itself is made of flexible plastic material. The catheter is changed three days later.
- For central veins. This system for insertion into the subclavian vein consists of a conductor, a catheter and a set of needles. It is designed to introduce drugs into the bloodstream for a long period and is used in cardiosurgery, oncology, resuscitation. The establishment of such a catheter is considered a small surgical intervention and is performed by a doctor-resuscitator in a medical organization. This manipulation is accompanied by a large number of complications, so often peripheral veins are used to administer drugs. The system is injected into the peripheral and then extended into the central vein. In this case, the probability of complications is reduced.
Regardless of the type of catheter, its size matters. Mark products according to the color scheme depending on this parameter:
- Orange. This color means thick catheters designed for viscous solutions and blood components.
- Purple. This tone is used for the thinnest products, which are used for infusion of solutions.
How to install the system( dropper)?
To properly set it up, you need to do a little preparatory work, which will be as follows:
- Place a dropper stand next to the patient, which is a stand on which the bag containing the infusion solution will be fixed.
- Wash your wrists and hands thoroughly with soap and do not forget about the interdigital areas. Then they need to get wet dry, and do not wipe. Or you can use any antiseptic tool for hand treatment.
- Check the name of the preparation prepared for the introduction, with the appointment of the treating doctor.
- Prepare a system, needle, tourniquet, fixation pad, cotton or gauze swab, alcohol solution of chlorhexidine for sterilization.
- In the drug package, find the connection site to which the system will be connected and wipe it with a swab dipped in alcohol solution.
- Connect the dropper and bag, hang on the rack.
- Print all bubbles.
- Wear gloves.
- To approach the patient.
Now proceeds directly to the formulation of a dropper:
- Over the puncture site, bandage your arm with a tourniquet.
- Disinfect the injection site.
- Install the catheter, which is a small tube and inserted with the needle, and after it is removed remains in the vein. Place it at an angle of 30 degrees to the patient's arm. Then remove the needle, and remove the tourniquet. Place where the catheter is fixed, wipe with alcohol solution.
- Connect the dropper tube to the catheter by fixing it with a plaster.
- Adjust the rate of drug administration using a special clamp mounted on the system.
Consequences of ingress of air into the vein
A blockage of the vein can cause an air bubble that gets into it when intravenously injected with a syringe or with a dropper. The air bubble disrupts blood microcirculation, blocking the lumen of the vessel, i.e. embolism develops. It is especially dangerous for occlusion of large arteries and, accordingly, penetration of a large volume of air. Immediately before the delivery of the dropper, air in the system is released, so the probability of getting air into the vein is negligible. To avoid complications and are not afraid of intravenous drip infusions, one should be entrusted to perform these manipulations to experienced medical workers.
What does the dropper consist of?
This medical product was invented in the thirties of last century. However, since then it has not changed much, only has been slightly improved. The medical system( dropper) consists of:
- flow rate regulator solution;
- a dropper with a filter;
- system of plastic tubes.
Principle of operation
Liquid from a vial or package under the influence of gravity enters the tube, passes through the dropper, re-enters the tube and then enters the vein. The filter and the air valve prevent the formation of negative pressure in the system. Otherwise, the liquid will not drip. On both sides of the system for the dropper are the needles, one of which is needed for the connection with the container of the drug, and the other for the puncture of the vein. The preparation through the filter enters the reservoir and then is dosed by means of a pipette.
The available regulator allows to reduce or increase the speed of drops depending on how the drug is injected: drip or jet. The reservoir is initially filled with a small volume of liquid and is watched so that there is no air in the tube. To start feeding the solution into the system, a needle is inserted into the cap of the container with the preparation, which is used to supply air to the interior, otherwise the liquid will not flow. Currently, all medical organizations use disposable systems for droppers, which is the safest.
The introduction of drugs directly into the venous vessel is a modern way of treating emergency conditions. The speed of infusion drugs are of two types:
- Drip. With this method of administration, the necessary preparation dissolves and further, by means of a special system, is introduced into the vessel. Due to the fact that the drug is in a fairly diluted form, the harmful effect on the vascular wall is minimal.
- Inkjet. This species is divided into a slow and bolus injection. The latter leads to a maximum concentration at the end of the infusion and then, after some time, its decrease occurs in the plasma. The rate of increase in concentration with slow administration is much lower.
The effect of the therapy is due to the fact that the drug immediately enters the blood. However, with this method of administration, there is a risk of complications. Therefore, the high professionalism of medical workers performing these manipulations is very important, as well as the quality of the materials from which medical products are made. At all kinds of infusions use infusion systems for a dropper. The medical market offers a wide range of these products.
Used for infusion of solutions and medicinal preparations in liquid form. The structure of the infusion system:
- special device, which pierce the lid and has a built-in air valve;
- dropper with filter;
- is a flexible long tube with a regulator-clamp, by means of which the infusion is regulated.
The system for a dropper with a filter allows to hold clumps more than 30 microns. The product is used once. The material used in their manufacture is transparent and allows you to see air bubbles, the level of solution, the speed of falling drops.
Types of transfusion systems
For the size of filter cells, the dropper system is divided into infusion products:
- blood and blood substitutes.
Correctly selected system taking into account the size of cells is the key to successful therapy. For example, to introduce a solution of glucose or electrolytes, small cells will not allow harmful impurities to enter the bloodstream. And in the case of transfusion of blood products such cells will quickly be blocked with elements of blood, and the infusion process will stop.
By the type of needle used, which is connected to a package or bottle, the systems are distinguished:
- with a metal needle;
- with a polymer needle or plastic spike.
The choice of the infusion system for the dropper in this case will depend on the storage capacity of the drug. For glass containers and use a metal, and for packages - a polymer needle.
Blood transfusion system
This product can be used for both glass bottles and transfusion packs. It includes:
- needle made of plastic and metal;
- two protective caps;
- dropper with filter;
- long connecting tube made of transparent material;
- air intake valve;
- the controller is a roller.
Blood transfusion systems are used to infuse blood from the donor and plasma. These products were invented by an obstetrician from Britain in 1818.Since then they have been somewhat improved. The drip system is equipped with a filter with large cells, which makes it possible not to miss clots of blood cells and at the same time to ensure the flow of blood at a certain rate. The presence of filters is especially important in the transfusion of condensed blood, which has a high viscosity.
Infusion system with metal needle
This dropper is designed for infusion of infusion solutions and blood substitutes from a bottle. The medical product consists of:
- drip system with filter;
- flexible hose;
- latex tube for cam infusion regulator;
- clamp for adjusting the speed of injection;
- lid piercing devices with metal needle.
The hose and dropper are made of a transparent material.
Infusion system with plastic spike
The product is used for infusion of infusion solutions from containers or bags. Unlike the previous system, consists of a device with a spike made of plastic to puncture the lid, combined with a semi-rigid dropper and filter. The remaining components are the same as in the system with a metal needle.
The dropper system is used to administer various drugs. With its help, the introduced substances are absorbed faster and better. There are many medical indications in which there is a need for them. However, one should keep in mind that infusion therapy is contraindicated in case of heart failure, propensity to thrombosis and swelling.
The use of droppers is not known for medical purposes. From the fulfilled systems it is possible to construct by own hands remarkable toys, gifts, souvenirs. Above in the photo presents crafts from the systems. Droppers at the same time are painted in different colors and you get quite amusing and unusual decorations for the holiday.