Chronic nephritis: causes, symptoms, treatment
Urinary tract pathologies are very common. Renal lesions cause the development of their functional deficiency. What are the characteristics of chronic inflammation of the kidneys? What therapy is required?
Chronic inflammation, localized in the kidney, was called "nephritis."Usually occurs bilateral damage to organs. The etiologic factor of the disease can be different. It is on the basis of the origin of the classification of nephritis. All these variants of inflammation differ not only in nature, but also in the clinical picture.
One of the etiological variants is pyelonephritis, which is more common in the female half of the population. Inflammation affects the calyx and pelvis, and the cause of such damage is infection. It penetrates into the kidney or with blood( hematogenous) or through the urethra. The inflammatory process is accompanied by a violation of urination, and in the urine can be found blood. The pains are localized in the lumbar region, they become intense during the period of exacerbation.
Another option is glomerulonephritis, which affects the glomeruli and partly the tubules. To provoke the inflammatory process may be immune disorders. Also predisposing factors are oncological formations and abscesses. The chronic process is characterized by relapses. During this period, there is nausea, xerostomia, weakness and stool disruption.
Radiation nephritis occurs after exposure to the body of ionizing radiation. There is a rapid inflammation of the tubules, accompanied by rapid dystrophy, and then - atrophy. This is the cause of kidney failure. In a chronic period, weakness and increased blood pressure.
Tubulointerstitial nephritis is another type of pathology. Inflammation spans the tubules, as well as interstitial, or intermediate, tissue. The cause may be the effect of toxic drugs, some drugs. The viral nature of the disease is possible. The organs are characterized by hypertrophy - they increase in size, their function is broken.
Hereditary nephritis is also distinguished. It includes Alport syndrome, which is accompanied by hearing and vision impairment. In men, the pathology proceeds more severely.
What are the symptoms of all types of jade?
The chronic form is characterized by a permanent edema syndrome, which is a sign of metabolic disorders. In laboratory studies, albuminuria and cholesterolemia are noted. In addition, there is a syndrome of hypertension, that is, a periodic increase in blood pressure.
Late stages are characterized by such impairment of kidney function that there is a syndrome of intoxication. As a result, toxins and slags( nitrogenous compounds) appear in the blood. Symptoms of this syndrome are fatigue, general malaise, headaches and increased blood pressure. With an increase in uremia, that is, accumulation of uric acid, it is possible to isolate it with sweat. The skin becomes dry. In more severe cases, a lethal outcome is possible.
Exacerbation: symptoms of
In the period of recurrence of chronic form, the main complaint is severe pain, localized in the lumbar region and pelvis. Urination becomes painful, burning occurs. A laboratory test can detect blood in the urine, purulent discharge. There is an oliguria - a decrease in diuresis. Edema is preserved. Supplement are headaches, nausea( often vomiting), fatigue, xerostomia, diarrhea, fever and hypertension. Chronic nephritis can turn into aggravation in case of overheating, hypothermia, infectious process.
Chronic nephritis, as a rule, is the outcome of an acute variant. Inflammatory phenomena subsided and are supplemented by hyperplastic processes. In the course of nephritis, the activity of fibroblasts is activated, the main function of which is the formation of connective tissue components. When stimulating their activity, sclerosis occurs. The structural elements of the kidney are irreversibly replaced by a connective tissue. Since it does not perform specific functions for the renal parenchyma, the urinary system is impaired - kidney failure develops.
Glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis and other types must be differentiated from each other, as well as from other pathologies. The diagnosis is based on questioning, examination and the results of additional methods. First of all, the patient is questioned, finding out the likely etiology - infection, toxic effects, taking medications and so on. Among the standard methods - urine and blood tests, which will help to detect pathology. Urinary samples are recommended, for example, in Zimnitskii and Nechiporenko. They will help to track not only the composition of urine, but also the state of daily diuresis. An effective method of diagnosis - a biopsy, that is, a tissue intake for histological examination. It will help to track the processes of sclerosing. Also, ultrasound, X-ray and tomography are used.
Additional methods allow you to confirm the diagnosis. It is possible to suspect jade on the basis of complaints( edema and hypertension).
Treatment of kidney nephritis depends on the etiology of the disease. So, for example, bacterial pathologies require the appointment of antibiotics( "Cefuroxime", "Ciprofloxacin").The virus cause( for example, tubulointerstitial nephritis) requires appropriate antiviral therapy. That is why it is important to differentiate the various etiological variants of the disease.
In addition to etiotropic therapy, symptomatic treatment is required. Cytostatics( "Doxorubicin", "Cyclophosphamide") are prescribed, which help protect functional cells. In the period of relapse, anti-inflammatory drugs are needed that reduce pain, fullness and swelling in the area of the pathological process. Increased blood pressure requires the use of antihypertensive drugs( "Lizinopril", "Captopril").
During the period of illness, you should monitor the diet. Chronic nephritis affects the kidneys, therefore, the excretory function is impaired. That's why you should stop using excessive salt. Canned food, spices and the use of large amounts of alcohol are contraindicated.
Renal nephritis of a chronic type is usually an outcome of acute. Consequently, preventive measures consist in the rapid diagnosis and subsequent treatment of acute inflammation of the kidneys. It is possible to suspect the disease at an early stage if regular medical examinations are carried out-deviations in the general analysis of urine are indicative of the patient's need to be sent for consultation to the nephrologist.
Jade is a kidney disease that leads to a disruption in their function. The chronic form is irreversible and leads to the formation of renal failure. Pathology requires a correction of lifestyle and the use of a number of drugs. Prevent her education will help timely treatment of acute form. Timely diagnosis in this will help.