The risk factor is this? Main risk factors for diseases

Risk factor is a circumstance( external or internal) that adversely affects human health and creates a favorable environment for the onset and development of diseases.

Health: definition of

Human health is a normal state of the body, in which all organs are able to fully perform their functions in maintaining and providing vital activity. Concerning the state of the human body, the concept of "norm" is used - the correspondence of the meaning of certain parameters in the range worked out by medicine and science. disease risk factors Any deviation is a sign and evidence of a deterioration in health, which is externally expressed as a measurable impairment of the body's functions and a change in its adaptive capabilities. At the same time, health is a state of not only physical well-being, but also social and spiritual balance.

Risk factor: definition, classification

Human health is a normal state of the body, in which all organs are able to fully perform their functions.

The following disease risk factors are distinguished by the degree of health impact:

1. Primary. Due to:

  • wrong way of life. This is alcohol abuse, smoking, unbalanced nutrition, unfavorable living conditions, poor moral climate in the family, constant psycho-emotional stress, stressful situations, drug use, weak educational and cultural level;
  • elevated cholesterol in the blood;
  • weighed down by heredity and genetic risk;
  • polluted environment, elevated background radiation and magnetic radiation, a sharp change in atmospheric parameters;
  • is unsatisfactory work of health services, which is the low quality of medical care provided, and the untimeliness of its provision.

2. Secondary major risk factors associated with diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and others.

major risk factors

External and internal risk factors

Risk factors for diseases vary:

• external( economic, environmental);

• personal( internal), depending on the person and the features of his behavior( hereditary predisposition, high blood cholesterol, hypodynamia, smoking).The combination of two or more factors at times enhances their effect.

Risk factors: managed and unmanaged

The effectiveness of elimination of the main risk factors for diseases differ in two criteria: managed and unmanaged.

To uncontrollable, or unavoidable, factors( which have to be reckoned with, but there is no possibility of changing them) is:

  • age. People who have crossed the 60-year threshold are more susceptible to the appearance of various diseases in comparison with the younger generation. It is during the period of conscious maturity that there is an almost simultaneous aggravation of all the diseases that a person has "accumulated" during the years of life;
  • floor. Women better tolerate pain, a state of prolonged limited movements and immobility in comparison with the male half of humanity;
  • heredity. Everyone has a certain predisposition to disease, depending on the inherited genes. By heredity, hemophilia, Down's disease, cystic fibrosis are transmitted. Hereditary predisposition is present in such diseases as atherosclerosis, diabetes, peptic ulcer, eczema, hypertension. Their occurrence and flow occurs under the influence of a certain external factor.

Managed risk factor: definition of

A managed factor is one that, if a person desires, his dedication, perseverance and willpower can be eliminated:

- Smoking. People who are accustomed to breathe smoke regularly are twice as likely to die from heart disease as non-smokers. The risk factor is one cigarette capable of increasing the pressure by 15 minutes, and with constant smoking, the vascular tone increases and the effectiveness of medicines decreases. When smoking 5 cigarettes a day, the risk of death increases by 40%, packs - by 400%.

risk factors definition classification

- Abuse of alcohol. Minimal alcohol consumption significantly reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. The likelihood of a fatal outcome is increased in people who abuse alcohol.

risk factor is

- Excessive weight. Not only increases the risk of the disease, but also has a very negative effect on the already present diseases. Danger is the so-called central obesity, when the deposition of fat occurs on the stomach. The most common cause of overweight is the family risk factor. It is a habit of overeating, lack of mobility( insufficient physical activity), a diet with a high content of carbohydrates and fats.

- Permanent heavy physical activity. This is considered hard work, performed for most of the day and associated with active movement, severe fatigue, lifting or wearing heavy loads. Professional sports activities associated with chronic excessive loads on the musculoskeletal system( bodybuilding, weightlifting) several times increase the risk of osteoporosis due to constant joint loads.

- Insufficient physical activity is also a managed risk factor. This negative effect on the tone of the body, lowering the endurance of the body, reducing the resistance to external factors.

- Incorrect food. Can be caused by:

  • food intake without feeling hungry,
  • consumed in large quantities of salt, sugar, fatty and fried foods,
  • eating food on the go, at night, in front of the TV or reading a newspaper,
  • eating too much or too muchsmall quantities,
  • deficiency in the diet of fruits and vegetables,
  • by a wrong breakfast or lack thereof,
  • a satisfying late dinner,
  • lack of an exemplary diet,
  • using insufficient water,
  • is exhaustedThe body has various diets and starvation.

- Stress. In this state, the body functions defectively, thereby causing the development of various kinds of diseases, and acute stress can be a trigger for the onset of a heart attack that carries a danger to life.

The presence of at least one of the mentioned risk factors increases the death rate by 3 times, the combination of several - in 5-7 times.

Joint Diseases

The most common joint diseases in a person are:

• osteoarthritis. The risk of the disease increases in proportion to age: after 65 years, 87% of people are affected by osteoarthritis, while up to 45 years, 2%;

• Osteoporosis is a systemic disease accompanied by a decrease in bone strength, which increases the risk of fractures even with minimal trauma. Most often occurs in women over 60;the main risk factors for joint diseases

• osteochondrosis - a disease of the spine, which causes degenerative-dystrophic lesions of vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, ligaments and muscles.

The main risk factors for joint diseases

In addition to the common risk factors( heredity, age, overweight) that pose a risk to the whole organism, joint diseases can cause:

  • inadequate nutrition, which provokes a micronutrient deficiency in the body;
  • bacterial infection;
  • injury;
  • excessive physical activity or, conversely, hypodynamia;
  • operations performed on the joints;
  • is overweight.

Diseases of the nervous system

The most common diseases of the central nervous system are:

• Stress is a constant companion for a modern lifestyle, especially for residents of large cities. This condition is aggravated by unsatisfactory financial situation, social decay, crisis phenomena, personal and family problems. About 80% of the adult population of developed countries live with constant stress. the main risk factors of diseases of the nervous system

• Chronic fatigue syndrome. A familiar phenomenon of the modern world, especially relevant for the able-bodied population. The extreme degree of the syndrome is burnout syndrome, expressed by fatigue, weakness, lethargy, lack of a psychological tone, followed by a sense of indifference, despair and complete lack of desire to do anything.

• Neurosis. Due to life in megacities, the competitive nature of modern society, the speed of production, trade and consumption, information overload.

Risk Factors of Nervous System Diseases

The main risk factors for diseases of the nervous system are as follows:

  • prolonged illnesses and frequent relapses lead to disruption of the well-coordinated work of the immune system and exhaustion of vital forces, thus loading the activity of the nervous system;
  • frequent depression, a sense of anxiety, gloomy thoughts, causing fatigue and constant fatigue;
  • no vacations and days off;
  • misconduct: stable lack of sleep, prolonged physical or mental overexertion, lack of fresh air and sunlight;
  • viruses and infections. According to the existing theory, the herpes viruses, cytomegaloviruses, enteroviruses, retroviruses, which cause a feeling of chronic fatigue, enter the body;
  • effects, causing weakening of the body, immune and neuropsychological resistance( surgery, anesthesia, chemotherapy, non-ionizing radiation( computers);
  • intense monotonous work;
  • psycho-emotional chronic stress;
  • lack of interest in life and life prospects;
  • hypertension,vegetative-vascular dystonia, chronic genital tract diseases
  • menopause

Factors causing respiratory diseases

One of the most commonread the diseases of the respiratory system, a terrible form of which is lung cancer Chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - the list is far from complete, but very dangerous

Risk factors for respiratory diseases:

  • smoking( active and passive).people in 90% of cases are at risk of developing chronic lung disease
  • air pollution: dust, smog, smoke, microparticles of different materials, cleaners cause diseases of the respiratory system and cause tsaid heavy their flow. The work of the respiratory system is adversely affected by the hobby of household chemicals, the use of cheap materials, pollution in living quarters;
  • obesity, overweight, causing shortness of breath and requiring increased work of the cardiovascular system;risk factor is
  • allergens;
  • occupational hazards present in the workplace, namely in the machine building, mining, coal industry;
  • weak immunity.

Risk factors for the diseases of the hematopoietic and immune systems

A serious problem of the present time is the deficit of immunity, determined largely by irrational and unbalanced nutrition, unfavorable environmental factors and bad habits. If the work of the immune system is clearly established, the road to viruses and microbes is ordered. Failure in the work of the immune system causes the emergence of diseases of various systems, including hemopoietic. These are leukemia, anemia, diseases associated with blood clotting disorders.

Main risk factors for hemopoietic and immune system diseases:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • menstrual irregularities;
  • acute and chronic hemorrhage;
  • surgical interventions;
  • chronic infections of the genitourinary system and gastrointestinal tract;
  • medicinal weights;
  • fungal and parasitic infections;
  • ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation;
  • occupational hazards;
  • carcinogenic chemicals, included in the composition of paints, varnishes;
  • food supplements;
  • pregnancy, lactation;
  • improper power supply;
  • radioactive radiation.