What is resuscitation? The main stages and methods of resuscitation
The term "resuscitation" refers to a set of measures taken to restore vital functions in a person who has a clinical death. They are performed when the pulse and respiration stop, and the pupils do not react to light. In addition, in the medical language, resuscitation is called a specialized ambulance and intensive care unit designed to treat seriously ill patients on the verge of life and death.
It has long been proven that after a cardiac arrest and respiratory process the human body lives for a few more minutes, despite the fact that it does not receive oxygen. The first from hypoxia begins to suffer the cortex of the brain. From the moment of her death comes the biological death of a person. This occurs approximately 4 minutes after the cessation of vital processes. Thus, there is a short period of time in which it is possible to restore blood circulation and respiration of a person. It is important to know that resuscitation is an activity that everyone must know how to carry out to help the patient in time before the doctors arrive. The earlier they are conducted, the higher the likelihood of a favorable outcome.
The recovery period of the patient is divided into 2 stages:
- Cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
- Intensive therapy.
In the first case, emergency care is provided, in the second case, the consequences of clinical death( cardiac arrest and respiration) are eliminated and the pathological condition that led to it is treated. During the period of life support the patient is constantly in the intensive care unit.
Causes of clinical death
Typically, cardiac arrest occurs due to:
- Anaphylactic shock. This condition is usually a consequence of allergies.
- Heart diseases, during which the negative effect on the work of the body.
- A constant stay in a state of stress, as well as a high intensity of physical exertion. A natural consequence is a significant deterioration of blood supply to the body.
- Clogging of blood vessels by thrombus.
- Large blood loss caused by injury or injury, including violent nature.
- ingestion or administration of unsafe medicines and dietary supplements. For example, after inappropriate injections of "Synthol" any bodybuilder can get into resuscitation.
- Toxic shock caused by the action of harmful chemical compounds.
- Serious diseases of the respiratory system.
Everyone should understand that resuscitation is such a complex of measures that not only medical workers, but also ordinary people, should be aware of the correctness of the exercise.
Symptoms of clinical death
This condition requires urgent care, so you need to be able to recognize it in a timely manner.
Symptoms of clinical death:
- Unconsciousness. It comes in a few seconds after the circulation stops.
- No pulse. This is the first sign that oxygen has ceased to flow into the brain. The slightest delay can cost a person's life.
- Lack of breath. How can I check this? It is necessary to pay attention to whether the human chest performs characteristic movements, then bend over to his face with his left ear and try to catch any sounds. After that, you can try to feel his breath through the skin, raising a hand to the patient's mouth. In the medical language, this method is called "see, hear, feel."
- Extended pupils, there is no reaction to light.
If a person has symptoms of clinical death, help should be given promptly.
Its task is the resumption of respiratory and circulatory processes. Liquid connective tissue must be enriched with oxygen and delivered to the brain.
The algorithm for pulmonary cardiac resuscitation is as follows:
- Preparation of the patient. The person should be laid with his back on a hard surface( floor, asphalt, etc.).The victim must be stripped of the chest, as under the clothes can be various ornaments that in the process of resuscitation can lead to additional injuries.
- Restoration of airway patency. To do this, you need to wrap the tissue on the index finger and release the mouth of the victim from mucus, foreign objects or vomit. Next, you need to tilt the head of a person to get rid of the slipping of the tongue. To do this, you need to put a roller of clothing under the neck or the area of the shoulder blades( not under the back of the head).Solid objects for these purposes are not suitable, since with further indirect heart massage is extremely likely to break the affected spine.
- Applying a precordial stroke. In the lower part of the sternum is the xiphoid process. If you put your fingers on this area, then a little higher( 2-3 cm) and there will be a point of execution of the blow. For its implementation, it is necessary to take such a position that the elbow is above the victim's stomach, and the rib of the palm pressed into the fist is above the breastbone. Next, it is necessary to apply only one sharp blow to the point above the xiphoid process. The goal is to shake the chest and make the heart work again. After the attack, you need to check the pulse. When it is found, the injured person must be laid on his side, the absence - to carry out the next paragraph.
- Indirect massage of the heart. The procedure is as follows: take the position to the right of the person, place the left palm brush above the xiphoid process approximately 10 cm. It is important that the fingers do not touch the chest. At the top, install the right hand. Both hands should not bend at the elbow joints. Next, you need to press rhythmically on the sternum( palms should always be on it) approximately 60-70 times per minute( in adults).During the jerking, it is important that they are displaced to the spine for 3-5 cm. Massage can be alternated with artificial respiration. To do this, fingers of the left hand need to clamp the nose to the patient, then through the napkin tightly press his mouth to the person's mouth and exhale with effort.
It is important to know that resuscitation is a set of measures that can be carried out simultaneously if there are several assistants. For example, one person makes artificial respiration to the victim, and the second conducts an indirect cardiac massage. Doctors carry out activities to revive the same scheme, in addition, medicines and a defibrillator can be used. Contrary to the common misconception, during the resuscitation, injections of adrenaline in the heart are not done, they are not recognized as effective.
How is it performed in children?
If the blood circulation stops suddenly, assess the child's condition within 5-10 seconds.
Symptoms of clinical death in children are:
- lack of breathing;
- does not feel a pulse;
- dilated pupils;
- no reflex reactions.
Before the ambulance arrives, the algorithm for implementing resuscitation of children is as follows:
- Ensure airway patency( methods similar to those used in adults affected).
- Artificial ventilation. It is necessary to perform 5 mouthfuls in the mouth and check the presence of a pulse. In his absence, it is necessary to start alternating an indirect massage of the heart and mouth-to-mouth breathing. In this case, 2 strokes should be performed for 15 strokes. The frequency of squeezing the chest - 100-120 per minute.
Activities should be carried out until the arrival of physicians.
Features of neonatal resuscitation
The algorithm for its implementation is similar to that applicable to older children. If the victim is a child under 1 year old, the difference lies in the method of performing indirect heart massage. It is carried out in the following way: it is necessary to impose the index and middle fingers( just below the level of the nipples) on the lower part of the sternum and perform quick sharp pressing( about 120 per minute).
Its task is to maintain the vital functions of the patient's body throughout its time in critical condition.
In medical institutions, the main structural unit is the intensive care unit. For severely ill patients, care is constantly carried out, doctors monitor the dynamics of changes in their health indicators. Translation into an ordinary ward is made with the elimination of conditions incompatible with life.
Discontinuation of resuscitation activities
All attempts to restore vital human processes are completed in the following cases:
- Resuscitation within 30 minutes did not give results( 10 minutes if it concerns newborns).
- Biological death recorded.
In addition, it is necessary to know that resuscitation is such measures that are not implemented if clinical death is a consequence of the progression of incurable pathologies or the consequences of injuries that are incompatible with life.
The return of a person to life can be carried out by both doctors in the medical institution and by ordinary people in any place where the victim is. For this, it is necessary to know the main stages and methods of implementing resuscitation measures.