Antral follicles in the ovaries. What is it, what are they responsible for? Norm and deviations
A modern woman increasingly hears a disappointing diagnosis from her gynecologist - "infertility."Doctors for a long time were engaged in the issue of optimal care for a woman in the matter of motherhood. The reason, which made detailed study and study of antral follicles in women, was the process of artificial insemination. The guarantee of an effective, positive fertilization result will depend not only on the age of the woman, but also on their number.
Significance and functions for the female body
For many women, the question: antral follicles in the ovaries - what it is, becomes relevant. Still in the womb of the mother, every woman gets her own supply of sex cells. Throughout the life of women, primordial follicles are constantly decreasing, the sex cells are dying, and the rate increases with each new year.
The most accelerated period of doctors is called adolescent and pre-climatic. And the last is 36-37 years.
Given such features and a fairly young age of women - 37 years - doctors made a discovery that antral follicles can be considered using an ultrasound machine. The size of such follicles can vary from 2 to 8 mm, while the method of counting is always reliable.
Having done the study, it is possible to fully establish the number of follicles that are the precursors of egg formation. Such procedures have made it possible to exclude microscopic analysis of the ovaries, to establish an ovarian reserve in women, to predict the number of eggs that can be fertilized immediately.
How many follicles are normal?
The number and norm of follicles is an assessment of the forthcoming superovulation in IVF.It is these indicators that will enable a woman to become pregnant and have long-awaited children.
There are established norms, from which doctors can talk about a woman's high chances for a desired pregnancy or prescribe additional hormone therapy.
If a woman has 1-4 antral follicles, then the chances of pregnancy are equal to 0. Such women will not benefit from either hormonal therapy or IVF.
If the indices range from 4 to 10, the chance of getting pregnant is if there is a powerful hormone therapy. But as medical research shows, the chances of success are very, very low.
Indicators 11 to 14 provide an opportunity to think about the child and get the desired pregnancy. It is enough to conduct the correct stimulation.
With indicators from 15 to 20, one can speak of a high chance of a positive result. It is enough proper hormonal therapy, and the woman will be pregnant in a short time.
At rates from 20 and above it is already necessary to speak about therapy which will help to receive not only healthy, but also qualitative eggs.
Parameters of follicle size: norm and pathology
As soon as a woman begins menstruation, the doctor can establish the size of the follicle on the days of the cycle. Every month, several follicles are ripening in the body.
On the 5th day of the cycle, a woman can see up to 10 antral follicles measuring 2-4 mm in size. Their location is the periphery of the ovary.
By the 7th day the size increases to 6 mm, while the network of blood capillaries on the surface is already visible.
Day 8 is the determination of the dominant follicles, they will continue to mature and will increase in size.
On the 9th-10th day the doctor can diagnose a dominant follicle by its size of 14-15 mm, all the others that have stopped their growth will be within 8 mm.
11th day - the size reaches 16 mm.12-13th day - the size increases by 2.2 mm, the development of a large number of estrogens begins.
The 14th day - the diameter of the follicle already reaches 25 mm. When performing ultrasound, the doctor can already clearly establish the size of the follicle on the days of the cycle, see signs of rapid ovulation.
The 15th-16th day is an ovulation in which the follicle breaks and the egg leaves for fertilization.
How correctly to calculate the number of follicles according to the size of the ovary?
It is also possible to diagnose the number of follicles according to the size of the ovaries. For the doctor, ultrasound will be sufficient, which will give the data width, length, thickness of the organ. Calculation of the result can be obtained by such a formula: all the indicators are added together. If the end result is less than 8, the reserve is very low, there is no success for successful fertilization.
With indicators above 12, we can talk about success and perform artificial insemination.
Blood counts as a diagnostic option for
Some gynecologists use blood test data. The lower the indices of AMG( antimulyullirovannogo hormone), the less the reserve of follicles for the release of the egg.
Persistent follicle - a risk of serious
development Some women can not get pregnant for a long time, and they diagnose an ovarian cyst in an ultrasound study. The persistent follicle always leads to such consequences.
This is the dominant follicle that develops until the moment when it needs to burst. Since the persistent follicle does not allow the egg to go outside, ovulation does not occur. The cause of such phenomena can be a violation of the hormonal background, an excess of testosterone. As a consequence, infertility is diagnosed in women.
To allow the egg to go outside, women with a persistent follicle are offered to undergo hormonal therapy.
An integrated approach also includes stimulation of the pelvic organs with the help of massages, ultrasounds or lasers.
Why can women not have follicles?
Some women of childbearing age face a problem when antral follicles are completely absent. The reason for this phenomenon is early menopause or ovarian dysfunction. The first sign of a violation is always monthly. If they do not pass within the range of 21 to 35 days, this is a sure sign of the development of pathology. It is necessary to immediately consult a doctor for diagnosis and hormonal therapy.
Also the cause of death of the ovum and follicles can be:
- operations on pelvic organs;
- use of medicines that disrupt microcirculation in the reproductive system;
- transferred chemo- or radiation therapy;
- bad habits( alcohol, smoking);
- improper diet, diet or fasting;
- hormonal failure.
Every woman should understand that since her birth there is a certain number of follicles inside her, which with age will allow her to have children. Having discovered the first signs of infertility or problems with the reproductive system, you should immediately contact a specialist for diagnosis and further treatment.