HBV vaccination: features, decoding and effectiveness
HBV vaccination is a vaccination against viral hepatitis B. It reliably protects the child or adult from this dangerous disease. The first drug for vaccination was created back in 1982, but in Russia the widespread use of this drug began in 2002.Currently, HBV is included in the vaccination schedule. The vaccine from hepatitis B is administered to newborns. Many mothers have a question: "Why should a baby be vaccinated at such an early age?".Let's find the answer together.
What is Hepatitis B?
Hepatitis B is a viral disease that leads to inflammation of the liver. There is jaundice, fever, pain in the right upper quadrant. Disease can trigger serious consequences, such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.
The virus itself does not act detrimental to the liver cells. But it disrupts the immune system. As a result, own lymphocytes begin to destroy the liver. It can be said that the virus triggers an autoimmune process.
The disease is extremely common. According to the World Health Organization, about 300 million people are asymptomatic carriers of the virus. And about 1 million people die every year from complications of hepatitis. Mostly these are children, teenagers and young people under the age of 20.
The insidiousness of the virus lies in the fact that in young children, hepatitis most often occurs without severe symptoms. And the smaller the child, the more likely that the disease will not have any symptoms. If the baby is infected with hepatitis B and he has obvious manifestations of jaundice, then this pathology is considered more favorable. This suggests that the immunity of the baby resists infection. Conversely, the asymptomatic course of hepatitis means that the body does not fight the virus.
Where can a child get infected?
Sometimes mothers do not want to put a HBV vaccine to a newborn. Women mistakenly believe that if they underwent a test for hepatitis during pregnancy, their babies can not be sick.
There are following ways of transmission of the hepatitis virus:
- through the blood;
- household contact;
- from the mother during labor or in utero;Sexual pathway
Hepatitis can not catch airborne droplets, as well as through water and food. If we talk about babies, they most often get an infection from the mother. And even if a woman took an analysis for hepatitis during pregnancy, this does not preclude the infection of the baby. After all, the future mother could after the inspection visit hospitals, undergo cosmetic procedures or dental treatment, and this increases the risk of infection. In the utero, children usually become infected with pathologies of pregnancy. A healthy placenta protects the fetus from infection. Therefore, more often newborns become infected with hepatitis during passage through the birth canal of an infected mother.
The uninvited babe can get the virus in medical procedures: blood transfusion, surgery, tooth extraction. This is the most frequent way of infecting children. A child can become infected with a household contact with sick family members or peers. Vaccination against hepatitis B( HBV) protects children from such a danger.
Can hepatitis be cured?
Hepatitis B is difficult to diagnose in children. Often the disease is masked for other pathologies and occurs with symptoms of respiratory diseases. There is the only way to detect a virus - a blood test from a vein to an "Australian" antigen. But often the doctor assumes the child does not have hepatitis, and ARVI, and the diagnosis is not done in time.
Treatment of hepatitis B is very expensive. To achieve a stable long-term remission, only special antiviral drugs - pegylated interferons - help. But even these expensive drugs do not completely eliminate the virus, but only suspend the process of liver destruction. In addition, such medications have many side effects. Such a difficult and complicated disease is easier to prevent than cure. For the prevention and vaccination of HBV.
How does the vaccine work?
From the surface of the virus, take a small amount of protein containing the antigen. It is placed in a nutrient medium from yeast, which provides enhanced cell division. As a result, the substance necessary for the preparation is formed. It is separated from the yeast solution, aluminum hydroxide and a preservative are added.
After administration of the vaccine into the human body, the protein exits through exposure to aluminum hydroxide. The body begins to produce antibodies to the antigen. As a result, stable immunity against hepatitis B virus is formed.
What does the name "HBV vaccination" mean? The abbreviation is as follows: HBV is the hepatitis B virus.
Drugs for vaccination
Currently, polyclinics are vaccinated with the following types of drugs for mass vaccination:
- "Recombinant yeast vaccine against hepatitis B".
- H-V-VAX II.
- "Regevak B".
The Russian preparation "Recombinant yeast vaccine against hepatitis B" contains no preservatives. Such means are recommended to vaccinate children.
You should pay attention to the drug "Bubo-kok DTP + HBV".It can be attributed to combined means. Simultaneously put the DTP vaccine and vaccinate HBV for children. Deciphering the name of the drug means - adsorbed pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccine( DTP) and viral hepatitis B( HBV).Thus, this vaccine protects the child from several diseases at once.
There is another version of this tool called "Bubo-M ADS-M + HBV".In addition to hepatitis, this vaccine works against diphtheria and tetanus, but does not prevent whooping cough.
All drugs for hepatitis B vaccinations contain only antigen. There are no microorganisms in them, as they are inactivated vaccines.
How is the vaccine administered?
Inoculation of HBV is done by injection. Usually it is administered intramuscularly, since subcutaneous administration reduces the effect of vaccination and causes seals. Aluminum hydroxide can lead to subcutaneous inflammation. The injection is never done in the buttock, because on this site the muscles are very deep. The HBV vaccine is placed in the hip for children, and for the adults in the shoulder.
How are babies vaccinated?
For complete protection against hepatitis B, several injections of the vaccine preparation are required. Vaccinations for newborns are done according to the following scheme:
- For the first time the drug is administered within 12 hours after birth. It is important to vaccinate against hepatitis before BCG vaccination( from tuberculosis), because they can not be done in one day.
- The second and third injection are done at 3 and 6 months.
After the first vaccination, 50% of children develop immunity against hepatitis, after the second - in 75%, and the third vaccination gives 100% protection against the disease.
This schedule is suitable for healthy infants who are not at risk. But there are newborns with an increased likelihood of infection. These are children whose mothers suffer from hepatitis, are virus carriers or were not examined during pregnancy for this disease. In such cases, a rapid scheme of vaccination against HBV is used. What does it mean? Vaccination is carried out not 3, but 4 times according to the following schedule:
- The first injection is given within 12 hours after birth.
- The second and third injection are done at 1 and 2 months, and then repeated at the age of 1 year.
If the vaccine was introduced in infancy, then it will operate for about 22 years. Then, in the adult age, the vaccine can be repeated or tested for antibodies to make sure there is immunity against hepatitis. In some people, an inoculation can last a lifetime.
Sometimes it happens that the recommended timing of the vaccinations are violated because of the acute illness of the child. In this case, we must remember that the minimum interval between injections can not be less than 1 month. As for the maximum interval, it should not exceed 4 months for the second vaccination and 18 months for the third.
Many parents heard about the HBV-1 vaccine. What is this vaccine? So the first introduction of the vaccine against hepatitis B is indicated in the calendar.
How are older children vaccinated?
If, for some reason, the child was not vaccinated in infancy, it is possible to vaccinate at an older age. Do an antigen test before vaccination is not necessary. The injections are done three times, while adhering to the following scheme:
- The first inoculation.
- Second injection after 1 month.
- The third injection in six months after the first.
If a child has hepatitis or is an infection carrier, then injections will not harm him, but will not do any good. The vaccine can last from 15 to 20 years. After this period, it is necessary to pass the antibody test and, if necessary, repeat the inoculation.
Vaccination of adults
Adult immunization with HBV is done quite often. The vaccine is used recently, and most people did not undergo the course of prophylaxis against hepatitis in childhood. Usually 3 injections are made:
- The first injection is given immediately when you see a doctor.
- The second - after 1 month.
- Third - six months after the first.
Immunity can last from 8 to 20 years. After this period, revaccination is done. Medical workers have an increased risk of contracting hepatitis, therefore vaccinations are mandatory for them every 5 years.
If a person needs to be revaccinated from other infections, you can use combination drugs, such as Hexavac. This is a convenient variant of HBV vaccination for adults. Explanation of the designation of the vaccine "AaCDS + hepatitis B + inactivated poliovaccine + Act-HIB" indicates that the drug gives immunity not only from hepatitis. The drug protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, as well as from a hemophilic infection that causes inflammation of the respiratory system and sepsis.
If a person has had contact with a sick hepatitis, then in the first 2 weeks an emergency vaccination schedule can help:
- The first injection immediately when you go to a medical institution.
- The second - on the 7th day.
- The third is on the 21st day.
- Fourth - 6-12 months after the first.
Together with the vaccine, an immunoglobulin with ready antibodies against hepatitis B is administered. This scheme can be used only for adults and teenagers, it is not used for small children.
How to prepare for vaccination?
Vaccination against hepatitis B does not require special preparation. It is only necessary to measure the temperature before the procedure. In acute respiratory infections, vaccination should be postponed. If the body temperature is more than +37 degrees, then the vaccination should be delayed.
Sometimes doctors advise before taking a vaccine to take an antihistamine pill to prevent allergies. However, this is not necessary. This recommendation should be followed only if the child or an adult has allergic reactions in the past.
Contraindications to vaccination
This vaccine is quite safe and has few contraindications. To abstain from vaccination is necessary in the following cases:
- during pregnancy;
- in the period of acute infectious diseases or exacerbation of chronic ailments;
- with intolerance to any component of the drug;
- when allergic to yeast or to previous vaccinations.
It should be noted that if a baby has a birth injury or hemolytic jaundice due to a Rh factor conflict, this is not a contraindication to vaccination.
Side effects of
Since the vaccine is inactivated and does not contain microorganisms, side effects are extremely rare. Usually there is a slight rise in temperature and skin reactions: redness, tightness and a slight soreness at the site of the injection. Allergic reactions are possible only in rare cases.
Mothers are often afraid or do not consider it necessary to make children vaccinate against hepatitis B. But their fears are in vain, since the vaccine has a high degree of safety. Parents are mistaken when they believe that a newborn can not become infected with this virus. Infection can occur at any age. Only a timely vaccination can protect a child from a dangerous disease.