Signs of sprains and first aid
There are many bones in the human body, which can be connected immobile, semi-mobile and mobile. Most of the movements of our body are due to joints. These formations are both strong and, thanks to ligaments, very mobile.
Quite often, unsuccessful movement, falling can lead to injury. Let's see what are the signs of bruising, stretching and dislocation. We will discuss what first aid should be provided with such damage.
What is stretching?
For people who lead an active lifestyle, such a trauma is not uncommon. One wrong move is enough - and now stretching limits mobility. Bunches of man, despite their strength, still under the influence of the load can stretch and damage.
Stretching refers to a trauma in which a rupture of connective tissue fibers occurs, of which ligaments are composed. Since they contain a large number of nerve endings and blood vessels, the signs of stretching will manifest themselves almost immediately in the form of pain and swelling. Damage to ligaments can be of varying degrees, the most serious is considered to be their complete rupture.
The severity also depends on the number of affected fibers. Any abrupt movements, a large load can lead to the fact that the signs of the extension of the joint will be there. Such injuries are not uncommon in children, sportsmen and those who prefer to lead an active lifestyle.
What can provoke sprains
Bundles are a connective tissue that responds in the joints for their strength and attaches muscles to the bones. By its structure, the fibers are fairly strong and capable of withstanding heavy loads, thereby providing mobility. If there is an inadequate physical effect, then the signs of stretching appear here like here. Most often, such injuries occur:
- If mechanical damage occurs to the joint.
- Excessive physical activity occurs.
- For a long time the joints and ligaments undergo the same load.
- Sharp movements in the joint, which exceed the normal amplitude.
Factors that increase the risk of stretching
There are always athletes at risk. Despite intensive and regular training, the ligaments do not always withstand excessive loads. In children, the ligamentous apparatus has not yet been fully formed, so they can also be attributed to this group. There are some other factors that increase the risk of getting a stretch:
- If a person has a low-activity lifestyle, then any increased physical stress can result in signs of ligament stretching not long in coming.
- Many, going to the gym or independently doing, incorrectly distribute the load when running, jumping, which is fraught with injury.
- The risk of stretching will be significantly reduced if a small workout is done before the main group of exercises is performed.
- Do not continue if you feel very tired. In such situations, coordination can fail, and any embarrassing movement will lead to stretching.
- With age, the elasticity of the ligaments is significantly reduced, so the frequency of such injuries increases.
- In the second half of pregnancy the ligamentous apparatus is already preparing for the forthcoming birth and becomes excessively elastic, which increases the risk of stretching with awkward movements.
From all of the above it becomes clear that almost everyone can get such a trauma. It is important now in time to recognize the signs of sprain and provide first aid to the victim.
Types of sprains
Sprain can occur in almost any joint, hence the following types of similar injuries:
- Stretching in the acromioclavicular joint. Such damage often occurs if a person falls or gets hit at the top of the joint. Immediately, pain is felt over the external end of the clavicle as the arm moves across the trunk.
- Stretching in the sternoclavicular joint can appear if you fall on an elongated arm.
- Wrist stretching takes place if the hand is sharply unbent.
- Injury of the knee joint is also diagnosed quite often. This can be with direct shock or twisting.
- Damage to the cruciate ligament can occur with strong twisting of the thigh with a fixed shin. At the time of injury, a feeling is created that the knee "falls apart".
- Sprain of the ankle joints. Often happens if you tuck your leg or accidentally land on a foot near a standing person.
Signs of stretching for different types of injuries are almost identical, we'll get acquainted with them further.
Degrees of stretching
The severity of stretching can be different, hence several degrees are distinguished:
The 1st degree is the lightest. There is damage to the small area of the ligament. The victim feels pain, but this does not affect his movements. Swelling may be absent altogether.
2nd degree - moderate. Typically, this is a partial ligament rupture. In the injured zone, severe pain is felt, there is swelling and under the skin hemorrhage.
The heaviest grade is 3rd. There is a complete rupture of ligaments, there is a strong acute pain, a large swelling, bruises. If an ankle injury occurs, the victim can not even step on his leg.
Signs of stretching
During stretching, almost all victims note the appearance of pain. This is explained by the large number of nerve endings in the ligaments and blood vessels, so there is also a swelling.
Pain and swelling are the first signs of stretching, but there are other symptoms:
- The formation of a bruise, hemorrhage in the tissue.
- Damaged area swollen.
- Redness of the skin.
- Movement activity is limited.
- If you touch the injured place, you feel pain.
- Temperature rise( not always).
- Hyperthermia at the site of injury.
Signs of bruising, stretching are quite similar. In both cases, it sometimes happens that the victim in the first moments does not feel pain, so he continues to move on. But this is dangerous because only the tension is increased, as the mobility of the joint injures the tissues.
In addition to stretching, a rupture of ligaments is possible, and this will require completely different care and treatment. In addition, the signs of dislocation, the signs of stretching are also quite similar, so it is necessary to distinguish them.
Displays of dislocation
The following phenomena occur during dislocation:
- Rupture of ligaments.
- Offset of bones.
- Surfaces of the articular bones stop touching or do it partially.
- The joint changes its external shape.
- Motor function is impaired.
Of course, dislocation and fracture are more serious injuries, but the first manifestations may resemble stretching, so it is necessary to diagnose as quickly as possible and begin effective therapy.
Signs of muscle strain
In addition to stretching the ligaments, you can observe the same injury, but affecting the muscle fibers. If you over-tighten them or shorten them, then there will already be signs of muscle strain:
- Painful sensations in the muscle during movement and probing.
- The muscle swells and becomes swollen.
- Possible formation of bruises.
- A painful seal appears in the lesion site.
- All or part of the muscle is broken.
If the injury has an easy degree, then in a few days it will stop bothering. More serious injuries require the doctor's intervention.
It is possible to differentiate the stretching of muscles from sprains by the following features:
- If a ligament injury occurs, the pain appears almost immediately or in a short time.
- When stretching muscles, the pain usually appears the next day.
How to help the victim?
So, we already know what the signs indicate the stretching of the ligaments. And first aid can be provided to the victim in a timely manner, which will significantly reduce the risk of complications. The algorithm of action will be as follows:
- Injured limb should be immobilized as soon as possible. This will help alleviate pain and reduce the risk of developing negative reactions.
- Cold can be applied to the injury site - it will relieve swelling, reduce pain. In such situations, any improvised means can be used in the course, from snow from the street to a piece of frozen meat from the freezer.
- Give the joint a natural position and apply a tight bandage.
- You can give the patient an anesthetic to relieve pain.
- If bruising occurs, the limb should be given an elevated position, which will prevent the growth of the edema.
- Visit the doctor to exclude the dislocation and rupture of ligaments.
If there is a slight stretch( signs), and first aid is given, then after about 5 days the symptoms will begin to subside, and the work capacity is fully restored.
Taboos with sprains
Everyone should also know what can not be done when stretching:
- Do not rub or rub the injured area. Thermal procedures can be used only a few days after injury to improve blood circulation, early resorption of hematomas.
- Do not take alcohol as an analgesic - this can increase bleeding, if any, and slow down the process of tissue repair.
- Only complete rest will help the ligaments to recover faster, if you continue to train or work through pain, this can lead to the development of complications.
If you follow all the doctor's recommendations and ensure complete rest of the injured limb, then the injured area will heal much faster.
Urgent to the doctor!
If the healing process is delayed and the symptoms listed below are observed, the doctor should be consulted:
- Severe pain, the injured limb can not be moved.
- There is numbness in the injured joint or lower.
- The site of injury was very red.
- Already in the past there have been cases of joint damage.
- Impaired mobility in the joint, there is a "crackling".
- No improvement for several days.
- Body temperature increased.
If one or more of these symptoms occur, you will need to call a doctor.
Treatment of stretching
Therapeutic measures include the following:
- Physiotherapy procedures.
- Injection of anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Therapeutic physical training.
- Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
If stretching without rupture of ligaments, then physiotherapy procedures have a good effect. But it is not always possible to visit such offices, so with a slight stretch, a pressure bandage is quite suitable. Recently, orthopedic adaptations for immobilization, made of natural or synthetic materials, are becoming more popular.
In the first couple of days, you can use cooling compresses, and then move on to warming. A good help in treating stretching is the use of ointments and gels, for example, "Voltaren", "Diclofenac."They not only help reduce edema, but also relieve pain.
After the puffiness subsides and the pain disappears, you can begin to perform some exercises that will help restore the normal motor activity of the joint.
Strong stretching sometimes requires the use of steroid hormones, for example ointments with prednisolone and hydrocortisone. Such drugs have anti-inflammatory effect, relieve pain and swelling of tissues.
If there is a serious injury, surgery may be required to stitch the ruptured ligaments.
If the victim does not want to see a doctor, they usually start home therapy. The first step is a bandage on the leg and an anesthetic injection is made. You can use "Diclofenac", "Ketanov" for these purposes.
Treatment at home reduces to the use of ointments, compresses that help to remove swelling, get rid of the pain. You can recommend this recipe home remedy:
- One potato and a bulb grate.
- Grind the cabbage leaf.
- Spread a tablespoon of yoghurt clay.
- Combine all the ingredients and make a compress at night.
You can use another recipe:
- 10 cloves of garlic chop and pour 0.5 l apple cider vinegar or 100 ml vodka.
- Leave to infuse for 2 weeks in a dark place.
- After 14 days filter and add 20 drops of eucalyptus oil.
- Composition can be used for compress.
If the injury is insignificant, then most likely, such methods will have an effective effect, and the symptoms of stretching will soon stop worrying.
Do not ignore even minor injuries: without appropriate treatment, complications may develop, and this will require more serious therapy.