Chronic sphenoiditis - what is it? Sphenoiditis: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Sphenoiditis is one of the varieties of sinusitis. In this disease, inflammation affects the so-called sphenoid sinus, which borders on the base of the skull, the carotid and the eye arteries. This anatomical location increases the risk of pathology spreading to different parts of the facial skull, so its treatment should not be neglected.
Sphenoiditis. What it is?
Sphenoiditis is a disease in which an inflammatory process develops in the mucosa of the sphenoid sinus. This pathology belongs to the group of sinusitis and at the same time is the rarest of them. It is not distinguished by a pronounced clinical picture, so the acute form often proceeds secretly and becomes chronic. If sphenoiditis is diagnosed in time, treatment usually does not present special difficulties.
The sphenoid sinus is otherwise referred to as the main sinus. It is located in the nasal cavity and is filled with air. In immediate proximity to it there are several functional anatomical formations at once: the base of the skull, the optic nerves, the carotid arteries and the pituitary gland. The inflammatory process can spread from the mucous membrane to the listed areas and cause the corresponding symptomatology.
Causes and mechanism of development of sphenoiditis
The causative agents causing inflammation in the zone of the sphenoid sinus are respiratory viruses and bacteria. Among the latter, the leading place is occupied by streptococci, hemophilia infection and a bacterium called Moraxella catarrhalis.
All patients with a diagnosis of "ARVI" are infected with the mucous membrane of the sphenoid sinus. With normal immunity and the absence of predisposing factors, the disease quickly passes. Due to some anatomical features of the sinus, when a slight swelling can lead to disruption of air exchange and outflow of fluid, the pathogenic bacteria begin to develop on the mucosa, and the inflammation rapidly progresses.
To the number of factors predisposing to sfenoidit, the doctors include the following:
- Narrow sinus outlet.
- Severe bending of the septum.
- The presence of foreign bodies.
- Tumors, cysts, polyps in the sphenoid sinus.
Acute sphenoiditis, as shown by medical practice, develops with simultaneous exposure to several factors. Their elimination leads to recovery. If the patient neglects treatment, the ailment passes into a chronic stage of development.
Acute form of
Acute form of the disease usually develops against the background of rhinitis. Influenza and other pathologies of infectious nature can also cause sphenoiditis. Symptoms and treatment of this disease are similar to purulent or catarrhal inflammations.
Patients noted the appearance of thick discharge from the nose, severe headaches, discomfort in the occiput. Also for the acute form of sphenoiditis is characterized by a violation of the sense of smell and a sharp rise in temperature.
The absence of timely treatment threatens the spread of inflammation to nearby organs with the subsequent development of meningitis or optic neuritis.
Chronic sphenoiditis develops in the absence of adequate therapy, with self-treatment or late treatment for help to a doctor. The transition from one form of the disease to another takes place very quickly. This is due to regular inflammatory processes, due to which the pathological secret from the sphenoid sinus comes in part.
Chronic variant of the disease can appear as a result of benign or malignant tumors, cause bacteriological and viral diseases. In the process of inflammation, the posterior cells of the so-called trellis labyrinth are affected. Among the most common symptoms of the disease, doctors distinguish the following:
- Pain and discomfort in the occipital region.
- The appearance of unpleasant odors.
- Isolation of the mucous secretion that drains to the back of the pharynx.
As the chronic form of pathology is inflammatory, in patients as it progresses the symptoms of general intoxication increase. Feeling of malaise, constant drowsiness, poor appetite - all these signs can accompany the patient for years.
Diagnosis of the disease
This disease is very difficult to diagnose. Firstly, it is extremely rare, and many doctors even forget about its existence. Secondly, through routine methods of diagnosis, it is not possible to detect pathology. Conventional radiography can reveal other variants of sinusitis( sinusitis, etmoiditis).
The sphenoiditis can be diagnosed by physical examination. The ENT doctor usually reveals signs of puffiness of the mucosa in the zone of the mouth of the sphenoid sinus. One-sided pharyngitis is also alarming.
The main methods of diagnosing the disease today are MRI and CT of the paranasal sinuses, and computer tomography is the most informative version of the study. MRI is prescribed for patients with headaches and other disorders of a neurological nature.
At the consultation, the doctor usually tells what causes sphenoiditis develops, what it is, what the disease is, and after the diagnostic examination appoints the appropriate treatment.
The main principles of treatment of the acute form of the disease are:
- Elimination of the causative agent of the disease.
- Reduces mucosal edema.
- Improved outflow from the sinuses.
With severe symptoms of intoxication, antibiotic therapy( "Zinnat", "Amoxiclav", "Cefix") is shown to patients. Preparations are selected taking into account the sensitivity of bacteria to them. In addition, the inflamed mucosa must be treated with special medications. Usually, by probing the paranasal sinuses with a sinus catheter, sphenoiditis can be cured in several procedures. What it is? This procedure involves repeated washing of the nasal cavity with antibiotic solutions until the secret secretion becomes transparent.
To remove the mucosal edema twice a day, it is recommended to inject a gauze bandage impregnated with epinephrine into the nasal passage. Also, vasoconstrictive drops( "Nazivin", "Sanorin", "Nazonex") are used for these purposes.
An important role in the treatment of the disease is given to immunomodulatory therapy. Specifically designed to increase the resistance of the body to infection, drugs significantly accelerate recovery( "Immodium", "Betaleikin").
At the stage of reconvalescence, patients are prescribed physiotherapeutic treatment. Usually, endonasal electrophoresis with an antibiotic solution is used.
Chronic sphenoiditis, the symptoms of which gradually become lingering, requires surgical treatment. It is aimed at eliminating the main causes of inflammation in the sphenoid sinus. In case of ineffectiveness of drug therapy, the patient is also shown surgery.
In medical practice, endoscopic techniques are actively used today to solve the problem quickly and without serious consequences. The essence of the operation is to provide full access to the area of the sphenoid sinus, eliminate existing pathologies and subsequent sanation of the mucosa. The procedure lasts no more than 30 minutes.
During rehabilitation, the nasal cavity should be rinsed with isotonic saline. To prevent the development of infectious complications, patients are shown antibiotic therapy.
Doctors strongly recommend not to postpone a visit to the hospital for suspected sphenoiditis. Symptoms detected in a timely manner, and subsequent diagnosis of the disease can choose the most optimal treatment option. In most cases, the prognosis in patients with this pathology is favorable.
With a chronic variant of the disease, the probability of a quick recovery is less. Even surgical intervention often leads only to a short-term improvement in the condition. The final cure is observed in rare cases.
We have already told how to treat sphenoiditis, what is it? How can you prevent the development of this pathology?
Specific prevention of the disease does not currently exist. To prevent the development of sphenoiditis, doctors recommend timely treatment of acute infections of the viral nature, not to allow the transition to a chronic form. Also, we should pay special attention to the state of the immune system( take vitamin complexes, perform hardening procedures).In the presence of predisposing factors to the disease, it is necessary to eliminate them in a timely manner, without waiting for the appearance of complications.