Microangiopathy of the brain - what is it, the causes, diagnosis and treatment
Brain angiopathy is a vascular disease that, for various reasons, causes their tone, as a result of which the brain cells cease to be supplied with blood. This is a very serious pathology that can lead to hemorrhage and even death. In some cases, it may be a disease such as a microangiopathy of the brain. What it is? In this case, the work of microscopic capillaries is disrupted. Consider this disease in more detail.
Description of the pathology of
Many have heard, and some have even experienced such a disease as microangiopathy of the brain. What is this? It is a pathological process that affects capillaries and small vessels, acquiring a chronic form. In the brain, blood circulation is disturbed. Since oxygen and glucose are responsible for normal blood flow, a prolonged shortage of these substances leads to disruption of the operation of small vessels of the brain.
Forms of microangiopathy
Such a pathology of the brain arises from the disruption of the operation of small vessels. It does not appear immediately, therefore at an early stage it is very difficult to diagnose such a disease.
Cerebral microangiopathy is mainly found in the elderly. A special group of people at risk is Alzheimer's. With this disease, amyloid( glycoprotein) begins to accumulate on the walls of the veins. It is also worth noting that pathology is difficult to diagnose and treat.
Lenticulostrial microangiopathy often affects children and is not a disease, but a feature of the circulatory system. Need constant monitoring.
Diabetic microangiopathy occurs due to impaired blood circulation in the brain, which causes diabetes.
Hypertensive microangiopathy is caused by a disturbance of the circulatory system that occurs due to hypertension. It is necessary to keep blood pressure under control and not to allow sharp jumps.
Causes of the disease
The development of microangiopathy occurs against a background of other diseases. It can be diabetes, oncology, liver pathology, hemolysis.
Among the main reasons are the following:
- viral infections( measles, rubella);
- pathology, contributing to blood damage;
- diabetes mellitus;
- old age;
- hereditary pathologies that cause vascular tone;
- various injuries;
- severe intoxication;
- abuse of bad habits.
The most common pathology develops as a result of the following processes:
- Necrosis is the destruction of tissues and body cells.
- Hyalinosis is a lack of protein against the background of hyaline deposition.
- Increased vascular permeability. As a result, the fibers and structural elements of connective tissue undergo irreversible changes.
- Thrombosis, characterized by the formation of a blood clot in the lumen of the vessel, resulting in impaired blood flow.
- Dysfunction of the vascular endothelium, which leads to their spasm. With this condition, the production of antithrombin, prostacyclin decreases, the concentration of thromboxane increases.
Characteristic features of microangiopathy
Clinical manifestations of the disease depend on the specificity of organs and tissues, the damage of which occurred under the influence of certain external factors. Patients most often complain of pain and burning in the legs, decreased vision, bleeding from the stomach and nose, the development of intermittent claudication, dry skin of the feet, hemoptysis.
Thus, the following signs of microangiopathy are distinguished:
- , the integrity of small vessels is disturbed;
- develops kidney failure;
- erythrocytes are damaged;
- blood clotting process is disrupted;
- is likely to cause subcutaneous hemorrhage.
Symptoms of the disease
The microangiopathy of the brain has the following symptoms: the patient begins to complain of a memory disorder, a clouding of consciousness, there is an uncaused weakness and headaches. They appear because of the fact that in the capillaries of the brain there is a violation of blood circulation. The damage to the walls of small vessels activates the oxidative processes of lipids, free radicals are formed, which destructively affect the cells of the brain.
As the disease progresses, the patient becomes inattentive and forgetful. He has a shaky gait, convergence disorder, the diameter of the pupils is different, visual functions deteriorate. In addition, there are frequent nasal and gastric bleeding, discomfort in the legs at rest, dryness and flaking of the skin of the feet, blood clots in the urine.
If there is a suspicion of a brain pathology, it is important to diagnose where the foci of microangiopathy are located and what extent of damage to the vessel walls. For this, the following diagnostic methods are used:
- MRI of the brain;
- magnetic resonance imaging;
- ultrasound dopplerography.
To get as much information as possible, use such a fairly safe procedure for the human body, like an MRI of the brain, the price of which is slightly biting. This method of diagnosis is considered the most popular. It allows to identify such signs of the disease as cerebral atrophy, leukoauriosis, enlargement of perivascular spaces, microscopic hemorrhages, lacunar infarctions. MRI of the brain, the price of which depends on the amount of contrast medium used, makes it possible to make a correct diagnosis. If the patient weighs less than 69 kg, this figure is 2700 rubles, from 70 to 99 kg - 3200 rubles, from 100 kg and more - 4400 rubles.
The method of magnetic nuclear resonance makes it possible to carry out a study of the brain tissue itself and the vascular network. In this case, signs of arterial hypoplasia are clearly visible. It is easy to see foci of heart attacks that arise due to occlusion of blood vessels, hypoperfusion of the brain, microscopic hemorrhages.
The ultrasound Doppler ultrasound method can detect abnormalities in the vessels, blockage or narrowing of the lumen.
Patients do not always understand when they are diagnosed with "microangiopathy of the brain", what it is and whether it is possible to cure it. The doctor usually prescribes complex therapy.
First of all, the patient should take drugs that normalize blood pressure. To eliminate the lack of oxygen in the brain, use antihypoxants, such as "Emoxipine."It is also important to adjust lipid levels by applying statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants. These can be the following drugs: "Atorvastatin", "Simvastatin", "Rosuvastatin".
Also, if microangiopathy is diagnosed, treatment should be performed using nootropics that improve brain nutrition. These are Piracetam, Nootropil, Cerebrosiline, Encephabol. For the normalization of blood circulation, nicotinic acid preparations are used: "Pikamilon", "Xantilone nicotinate".
Thus, we have disassembled such a disease as microangiopathy of the brain. What it is, you now know. This is a serious pathology that requires immediate intervention. The sooner it is clarified, in what place the focus of this disease is localized and what degree of vascular lesion, the easier it will be to minimize the consequences of such an ailment.