Types of edema: description and treatment
What are the types of edema? What are their differences and what are their causes of development? You will find answers to all these questions in this article. Also we will tell you how to get rid of such unpleasant phenomena.
Basics of swelling of
Types of edema depend on their location and the causes of development. This condition is characterized by an excessive accumulation of fluid in the tissue extracellular spaces and human organs. Most often, swelling is observed after awakening, and also at the end of a work day.
Description of edema
Types of edema are determined depending on the causes of their occurrence. However, all of them are similar to each other. Edematous tissue is a strong or moderately pronounced swelling. Very often after contact with it( for example, when you press a finger) there are traces on the skin that can disappear after a few seconds or after a few hours.
Causes of edema
Swelling can develop for various reasons. Most often, such a pathological condition undergoes lower limbs. Types of edema of the legs depend on the reasons for their occurrence. These include the following:
- a large load on the lower limbs;
- excessive fluid intake, including before bedtime;
- flat feet;
- disturbed metabolism;
- frequent crossing of legs in a sitting position;
- prolonged sitting on too soft or low seats;
- excess weight;
- badly selected shoes( for example, on high heels or flat soles, with a tight boot and the like);
- varicose veins( especially often such swelling is noted in the evening, and after sleeping - disappear).
It should also be noted that edema on the legs can develop as a result of a violation of blood flow and hydrostatic pressure in the veins.
Other causes of
In addition to the listed causes of edema development, their occurrence may be due to:
- cardiovascular disorder;
- kidney disease;
- of bowel diseases;
- acute respiratory infection;
- a violation of lymph flow in the subcutaneous tissue and skin;
- with thyroid disorders;
- with acute thrombophlebitis and other.
Types of edema
The main types of edema include the following:
- Generalized( congestive or cardiac, as well as renal, endocrine and cachectic).
- Localized( inflammatory, toxic and allergic).
Consider all of the listed types of edema tissue in more detail.
Cardiac edema and their treatment
They arise as a result of the development of heart failure. With such a pathology, the minute volume of the heart decreases, and arterial hypotension also increases.
Venous hypertension and venous congestion play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiac edema. The latter disrupts normal metabolism in tissues, in which under-oxidized metabolic products accumulate, and acidosis also develops. As a result, the structure of the cementing intercellular substance of the vessels is broken and their permeability is increased. This phenomenon in combination with high pressure provokes the movement of sodium, proteins and water from the cavity of the capillaries into the interstitium. After that, edema develops.
How to treat this pathology? Treatment of cardiac edema should be aimed at increasing myocardial contractility by taking cardiac glycosides, as well as increasing the excretion of water and Na from the body by administering diuretics.
Renal edema and the way to resolve them
The cause of this condition is a decrease in oncotic pressure in the blood plasma. This process is due to proteinuria, which is observed in the defeat of the glomerular apparatus of the kidneys. After a significant increase in the filtration of water from the arteries and capillaries into the interstitium, its resorption in the veins drops sharply. Thus, the fluid accumulates in the tissues, and edema develops. How it can be eliminated?
Renal edema only go away with diuretics. However, it should be remembered that the fight against such swelling is not capable of leading to normal functioning of the affected organs. Therefore, all the main efforts of drug treatment should be directed to direct treatment of kidney pathology.
Marant or cachectic edema and their therapy
This pathological condition develops in severe and debilitating diseases, as well as extreme conditions, including malignant tumors, severe diarrhea, protein starvation, avitaminosis and others.
The main cause of the appearance of the miracle or cachectic edema is a significant reduction in the synthesis of soluble plasma proteins and the development of hypoproteinemia, as well as a reduction in the synthesis of proteins in the connective tissue. Also for this pathological condition is a significant increase in the permeability of capillaries for electrolytes and water, which subsequently accumulate in the interstitium.
How to treat such types of edema? Treatment of the miraculous or cachectic pathologies is reduced to the therapy of the main diseases listed above.
Endocrine edema and methods of their therapy
The reason for the development of such a state is the increase of hydrophilicity of protein structures of muscles and skin. Very often this pathology occurs with myxedema( i.e., hypothyroidism).For such a disease, protein catabolism is characteristic, as well as distortion of their synthesis. As a result of this process, a huge amount of mucin is formed, that is, a hydrophilic colloid, which, accumulating in muscles and skin, causes water retention in them, and, accordingly, the development of swelling.
How is edema of this type? To eliminate them, doctors recommend the use of thyroxine, that is, the thyroid hormone.
Now you know the main types of edema. They can not touch the faces, since these are generalized edema that result from internal disruptions in the body. If the swelling is noticeable to the naked eye, then this is a localized swelling. Let's consider its types, features and methods of treatment right now.
Can this condition be preceded by an allergy? Edema due to such a reaction is quite real. According to reports of specialists, inflammatory and allergic swelling arises from local disorders of capillary permeability. Also, the cause of this phenomenon may be hypertension in the lesion focus.
To eliminate these conditions, any contact with the allergen should be eliminated, and anti-inflammatory and antihistamines should be taken.
Toxic edema of
The main types of pulmonary edema are very often caused by the inhalation of toxic chemical vapor. This pathological condition can also be associated with insect bites and bacterial toxins. Under the influence of such agents, the permeability of blood vessels suddenly increases and tissue metabolism is disturbed. As a result, the components accumulate in the affected tissues, which increase the osmotic pressure and promote swelling of the colloids. In combination with increased capillary permeability, this causes the development of swelling.
Medical measures to eliminate toxic edema should be aimed at normalization of all metabolic processes in tissues and stabilization of capillary membranes.
As you can see, there are many types of edema that can have completely different causes of occurrence and require different ways of treatment. But, no matter what kind of swelling on the body does not disturb the patient, you should first turn to the therapist. After examining the patient, the doctor must send him to a more narrow specialist who will confirm the diagnosis and prescribe the necessary treatment.
One can not help saying that tightening with the therapy of edema can aggravate a person's uneasy condition. After all, generalized and localized edema can even lead to death.