Blood supply of the uterus and appendages
About what the blood supply of the uterus is, in the atlas of Sinelnikov is told quite clearly. Information is taught in the course of human anatomy. This system is always studied both in schools with an in-depth program, and in medical universities. If you know the scheme of blood supply to the uterus and ovaries, a person who does not have deep medical knowledge wants to understand the special literature is very difficult. This is due to the specific terminology, and rather complex essence of the topic.
And yet the pattern of blood supply to the uterus can be understood if you understand this without going into the problem too much. Then the topic will be available to the general public. Still, every modern woman should have an idea of her body and how it functions. This is especially important for those who have a poor blood supply to the uterus, as this greatly affects the health and ability to bear and give birth to a child.
Organs and bloodstream
There are several major arteries through which the uterine blood supply is provided. In anatomy, special attention is traditionally paid to the inner( sham) and external genital arteries. The first originates from the internal branches of the iliac artery, and the second - from the medial femoral.
Studying the features of the blood supply to the uterus, special attention should be paid to the obstructive artery. This vessel also starts from the iliac on the inside. The branches of this same artery are external seminal. Blood supply and innervation of the uterus are ensured through them. For each of the arteries there is a pair in the form of a vein. These vessels are located in parallel.
The system of blood flow: nature solves complex problems
To ensure that the genital tissues function normally, they receive the necessary nutrition, the human body is filled with numerous interconnected vessels. Through them, the blood from the aorta comes to separate cells, tissues. In the anatomy of the blood supply to the uterus and appendages, special attention is paid to the ovarian artery, through which the life-giving fluid is supplied to a branched network of small vessels, as well as the uterine, originating from the internal branches of the iliac artery.
The main volume of arterial blood to the organ is provided by the functioning of the uterine artery. To a lesser extent, the inflow of fluid is due to the ovarian. The uterine artery is the key element of the arterial system of the uterus, because it is through it that the blood enters not only to the organ itself, but also to the tubes, ligaments. This vessel provides an inflow of fluid transporting oxygen and trace elements to the vagina, ovaries. The direction of the vessel is medially downward. If you consider the system of blood supply to the uterus and appendages, you can see that the uterine artery has an intersection with the ureter, and at the level of the cervix, the vaginal artery departs from it.
The blood supply to the uterus and ovaries has certain characteristics in women giving birth and not giving birth. In the first case, the arteries can be tortuous. Anatomists also note that the uterine artery through numerous branches provides blood supply to the uterus and ovaries, for which the vessels are literally permeated with shells of organs. This network extends to both muscular and mucous tissues. During pregnancy, such a system is actively developing, becoming more complicated, which affects the body of a woman. After the birth of the reverse process of degradation, the circulatory system does not occur.
Functions of the ovarian artery
In many respects, the blood supply to the uterus and appendages is due to the presence of this particular vessel. It provides the supply of oxygen, nutrient components to the organ tubes, ovaries. The vessel starts from the abdominal aorta in the lumbar region. Further, the artery descends, repeating the trajectory of the ureter, to the pelvic organs. When the vessel is at the level of the ovaries, the branches are sent there, carrying life-giving fluid. In this case, the blood supply to the uterus and appendages assumes simultaneous delivery to the same blood tissue from different sources. Thus, the blood supply to the ovaries is provided not only by the ovarian, but also by the uterine artery, the branches of which are also directed to these organs.
Vagina and genitals
In the upper half of the vagina there is blood in the vessels coming from the uterine artery. For the supply of fluid, branches are provided directed downward from the main channel. The middle elements are fed from the lower vesicle artery. Finally, the vagina from below receives blood from the middle intestinal artery and the sham or inner sex.
If you analyze the blood supply of the cervix, you can see that the organs of the reproductive system are closely related to each other by blood vessels. In this case, the internal branches of the iliac artery ensure the flow of blood, oxygen, microelements to the vagina in its lower third.
All the arteries that form the blood supply of the cervix, other elements of the sexual female system, go in parallel with the veins that have similar names. At the same time, the vessels intertwine with each other, which creates a powerful blood supply system, protected from failures.
Considering the blood supply to the uterus, you should also pay attention to the lymph nodes, vessels. Allocate the following lymph nodes in the studied area:
- internal iliac( upper and lower gluteal, obturator, lateral sacral);
- external iliac( lateral, intermediate, medial);
- common iliac( lateral, intermediate, medial);
- visceral( okolopuzyrnye, okolovatychnye, okolovlagalischnye, anorectal).
The inner lining opening has a lymph node in which lymph drainage from the cervix occurs. Also, the blood supply to the uterus is largely controlled through single lymph nodes scattered through the tissues of the pelvic organs.
Most of the lymph nodes are located near the arteries, veins or directly on them. Lymph nodes of the groin feed through the organs of the reproductive system, located outside, and also through the vagina in its lower part. This determines the peculiarities of the uterus blood supply system: round uterine ligaments provide communication with the organ bottom through the lymphatic ducts.
Lymphatic flow: an important element of the reproductive system
When analyzing the blood supply to the uterus, the vessels connecting the lower part of the organ and the lymph nodes located near the sacrum, the occlusal opening, must be considered. One can not deny the importance for the human health of the normal functioning of the pararectal and parametric lymph nodes.
Lymph from the tubes, the body of the uterus, from the ovary region, is guided along the vessels intended for this purpose into transverse nodes. Among the organs of the small pelvis there are also lymph nodes concentrated near the iliac artery. When analyzing the blood supply to the uterus, it can be noted that the concentration of such clusters is highest where the uterine artery and ureter cross. Also, lymph nodes in abundance are present in the region of the sacrum, the points of separation of the aorta into two arterial blood vessels.
Innervation of the uterus
This is represented by sympathetic, parasympathetic elements of the vegetative NA.Primarily nervous tissue of sympathetic origin. In abundance there are fibers from the spinal cord, plexuses near the sacrum. The uterine body is permeated with sympathetic nerve fibers, the start of which is a plexus near the aorta in the abdominal cavity. Innervation of the uterus is due to the presence of a special plexus, responsible for both this organ and the vagina.
The vagina in the main part and the cervix are permeated with parasympathetic nerve fibers. These originate in the plexus near the vagina, the uterus. The ovary plexus provides the nervous system in the appropriate organ. Here come the fibers starting from the plexuses near the kidneys, the aorta. To some extent, the plexus near the ovaries also ensures the efficiency of the nervous system of the uterine tubes, but not only. This area also depends on the fibers going from the uterine, vaginal plexus. When analyzing the nervous system of external organs forming the female reproductive system, one can notice the important role of the genital nerve starting from the cereal near the sacrum and numerous branches providing the nerve sensitivity zone.
Difficult but Reliable
How to improve blood supply in the uterus, doctors have to think only if the patient suffered a trauma, an operation or a serious pathology. In general, the circulatory system of the genital organs, composed of numerous vessels, not only works flawlessly, but also has a high margin of safety. This is a volume complex of organs, which is characterized by high blood flow velocity. This makes possible a regular change in the menstrual cycle, the reproductive period.
Since the circulatory system is very rich, it is not an issue for the body to repair tissues lost during the menstrual cycle. Also, the correctness of the blood supply system is the key to the possibility of implanting a fertilized egg, forming a placenta.
And why do I need this?
To understand the structure of the uterus in particular, supplying it with blood is usually necessary for those who can not get pregnant for a long time. As shown by gynecological statistics, it is this problem that often pushes modern women to a detailed study of their anatomical structure. Many people hope that this will help to find an approach that will make a dream come true and become a mother.
Modern gynecology knows a number of quantitative, qualitative indicators that allow to assess whether the uterus blood supply system is adequate. In the clinical case, this makes it possible to correctly assess the condition of a woman and find ways to solve the problem. Surprisingly, the anatomy of the pelvic organs is quite constant, despite significant differences in the body of different people. In addition, age changes strongly affect almost all organs, changing them, but the reproductive system remains stable for a long time. At the same time, doctors take into account that under the influence of pathologies, the age factor, the state of the reproductive cycle, it is possible to correct the characteristics of the circulatory system.
Arteries: features of
The arterial system of the uterus is the ovarian, uterine artery, the second more responsible for the nutrition of the organ than the first. Uterine is divided into an ascending, descending artery near the isthmus. A downward blood vessel provides oxygen, microelements to the vaginal walls, the uterine neck. The second branch repeats the trajectory of the wide uterine ligament and is attached to it, reaches the ovarian artery, after which the vessels merge into a single whole.
When forming a single vessel of two, an arc appears also, located in a wide bundle. This element is rich in branches that feed the uterine surface in front, behind. In addition, the blood flow is ensured and throughout the thickness of the uterine walls, creating the necessary environment for the vital activity of cells.
Pregnancy: changes in the circulatory system
If in the normal state of the female reproductive system the blood vessels supplying it, including the arteries under consideration, are rather sinuous, the organism undergoes a gradual reorganization during the fertilization of the egg. It can not be said that the vessels become less tortuous, but they undergo changes. They become larger, at the same time the diameter of the blood vessels grows, the arteries grow in length.
During the gestation of the fetus, the circulatory system of the genital organs is actively developing, which affects the number of vessels that form it. Many branches sprout into the uterus, repeating the contours of the outer part of the organ. This phenomenon in anatomy is usually called a wonderful network. Such a term is applied to a peculiar plexus of numerous elements, in the composition of which there are three types of vessels, each differing in structure and position.
Uterus: form and parts
This term is used to designate one of the key components of the sexual female system. The organ is formed by a muscle tissue and normally has the shape of a pear. This element is located in a small female pelvis, nature is provided for bearing the fetus subject to the preliminary fertilization of the egg( genital function).
The uterus is formed by numerous elements, in medicine divided into several groups of tissues. Allocate a bottom that looks up, forward, body, neck. The cervix goes down to the vagina. The point at which the body passes into the uterus is usually called the isthmus in anatomy.
Surfaces and cavities
From the point of view of anatomy, we can speak about the presence of two surfaces of the organ. At the back, it adjoins the intestines, which gives the name of this part, and the name in the front is due to the proximity of the bladder. The uterus is characterized by the presence of the right and left edges.
The greatest interest for any woman planning pregnancy is the uterine cavity. It is relatively small, studies usually show a form in the form of a triangle. On the sides of the upper side there are pipes, and from below the channel of the neck starts. With a detailed examination of the mucous membrane of the organ can be seen glands providing a normal production of sex hormones. The nasal canal connects the uterine opening and the vaginal entrance. To limit the hole provided for the back, front lip.
Girl and woman: there are differences
Usually, even if there is no information from the patient when performing a gynecological examination, the doctor can tell exactly whether the woman gave birth or not. Conclusions can be made both from the shapes and sizes of the uterus. Thus, for girls, the conical shape of the uterus is characteristic, which gradually transforms into a cylindrical form with age. The most pronounced is the correspondence of this form to those who have already borne birth. In this case, the hole is usually transverse, oval to the genus, and afterwards it becomes a transverse slit.
In different women the uterus grows to different sizes, much depends on the state of reproductive status. So, if there was no birth before, then in length the organ is usually not more than 8 cm, and for those who have already become a mother, the length can reach 9.5 cm. The width of the site giving rise to the fallopian tubes after giving birth is 4.5 cmPrior to pregnancy, the uterus weighs no more than 300 g, and the body actively develops already during puberty, and in old age there is a natural decrease in size. Soon after birth, the uterus of the young mother comes back to its former state by weight.
Features of the structure
The uterus is a complex organ, formed by several layers of tissues. Inside it is a mucous tissue, in the center - muscular, and outside - serous. The middle layer is thicker in thickness than the other two, and in anatomy it is proposed to divide it into three additional layers( longitudinal outer and inner, circular in the center).
For the mucous is characterized by a thin epithelium formed by a single layer. It has a prismatic appearance. Mucous - the place where the glands are concentrated, providing and controlling the work of the uterus. These are tubular simple glands. The internal surface of the organ in adulthood changes with observance of a certain cycle. For the general public, this is known as the term "menstruation."During the "red days" the mucous membrane loses the functional layer - the tissue is rejected. When the process is completed, the bleeding stops, quick recovery of the lost tissue occurs and the mucosa is again ready for its basic function - a fertilized egg is implanted here.
Two other shells: what are the features of
The most important part of the uterus is its shell, which is formed by muscle fibers. It has already been mentioned above that in the anatomy it is customary to separate three layers of smooth fibers, woven together, taking into account the diversity of directions. In the center it is a circular plexus, and the inner and outer layers are longitudinal. The middle layer is characterized by an abundance of blood vessels.
The peritoneum, also referred to as the serosa, is designed to cover the uterine floor, with the tissue gradually moving to the surface of the organ. If you examine the uterus in front, you can see that the serous membrane reaches the neck and even slightly covers the bladder. This allows you to form an anatomically important indentation.
Ultrasound as a method for studying the state of the body
This methodology allows one to understand how anatomically correct position the uterus occupies in the female body. With the help of ultrasound, doctors can conclude that there is a deviation and in which direction, to what consequences this can lead.
When examining the area behind the bladder, it becomes possible to evaluate the uterus from such an angle that in the pictures it has the shape of a pear. But if the research is carried out in a cross-section, then the organ appears ovoid. In this case, doctors observe the heterogeneity of the structure and can make a conclusion: as far as it is within the norm. If there is no problem, then the myometrium should be constant throughout its volume, structurally it is echopositive.
The endometrium changes, it depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle. In some time intervals the tissue becomes thicker, at other times it decreases - and so it repeats from month to month. Also, in the study, it is important to pay attention to how well the organs and tissues are supplied with blood. The arteries involved in this were listed and described above. Normal functioning of the organ is possible only if supplied in normal blood volume at a rate characteristic of the body, while it is important that the outflow of lymph occurs in accordance with the work of the circulatory system - quickly, without failures.