Fecal obstetrics: decoding in children( table, photo)
A coprogram is a study of stool to determine their properties, chemical and physical composition, the presence of abnormal inclusions to confirm the diagnosis of a disease, and to monitor the dynamics of disease and the effectiveness of therapy.
Caloric content is formed when the chyme( food lump) moves through the digestive tract from entering the oral cavity to the anal canal. Therefore, the results of the coprogram are a valuable diagnostic criterion for determining gastrointestinal diseases.
coprogram is prescribed In feces it is possible to detect various microorganisms in the number and kind, fecal pigments, particles of undigested foods, epithelial cells from various areas of the intestine.
In accordance with the characteristics of fecal contents, an experienced laboratory assistant will easily reveal pathological processes that are localized in this or that part of the intestine.
A coprogram is assigned when:
- Glaive invasion.
- Acute, chronic stomach diseases.
- Diseases of the duodenum.
- Various infections.
- Pathologies of the pancreas, liver, gallbladder and ducts.
- Pathological processes in the small intestine.
- To assess the effectiveness of the therapy and the need for treatment correction.
With the help of a coprologic analysis it is possible to detect dysbacteriosis( a condition when the ratio of normal and pathogenic microorganisms is violated and the amplified multiplication of the latter takes place).
Coprogram is rarely used as an isolated diagnostic method, more often its use is combined with other studies. However, despite this, the diagnostic value of coprological analysis is very high.
Rules for passing the analysis of
There are some simple rules that must be taken into account when submitting material for this analysis:
- If the patient takes iron preparations or products containing bismuth, their reception will have to stop. In addition, do not use laxatives and rectal suppositories. You can not wash the gut with an enema.
- If the patient underwent contrast radiography, the analysis of stool can be carried out no earlier than seven to ten days after this, since barium is able to change the properties of feces.
- For several days before the analysis it is necessary to exclude exotic dishes.
- For forty-eight hours before delivery of the material, beet, tomatoes, tomato paste and juice, as well as other products with coloring matter, will be excluded.
- For seventy-two hours should stop taking antibiotics and enzymes.
- The diet should include cereal cereals, fruits, sour-milk products, vegetables. It is not necessary to overeat.
- Limit sharp, smoked, pickled, fatty foods.
- During the monthly coprogram does not give up.
- The collection of stool should be arranged so that the material does not get urine.
- Evacuation of stool for collection should be natural, without the use of enemas and stimulants.
Collection of feces for the
- study. Before collecting the material, it is necessary to empty the bladder, thoroughly wash the anal area and genitals with warm water and neutral soap without flavors. After that, wash the above areas with boiled water again.
- In a clean container with a wide neck with a spatula( included in the kit of containers for feces) will need to collect pieces of feces.
- After collecting the material, the container is tightly closed and signed, indicating the patient's name and date of collection.
It is not recommended to use food cans and wooden boxes as containers. The approximate amount of collected feces should be equal to fifteen to twenty grams.
Collect the material in the morning and deliver it to the laboratory as quickly as possible( the accuracy of the data depends on this).
If necessary, the filled container can be stored in the refrigerator for no more than eight hours( temperature not exceeding five degrees).
Stool examination is carried out for two to three days, sometimes it takes a little longer( 5-6 days) to respond.
Collection of materials for infants
In infants, feces are collected with an oilcloth or diaper( in the case of a liquid stool).
In the presence of constipation, stool stimulation is performed with the help of a stomach massage, sometimes putting a gas outlet tube.
Hands before material collection are required.
Collecting material from diapers is not desirable.
Fecal calculus: decoding in older children and adults( procedure of investigation)
First, macroscopy of stool masses is performed, while assessing:
- Appearance of feces.
- Its density.
- Shade( normal or pathological).
- Presence of blood, undigested food, mucus, pus.
- Presence of helminths.
- The presence of pancreatic or gallstones.
After the microscopy of the stool, allowing to evaluate the function of digestion of food.
Fecal formulation( decoding in children): table
|Color||All shades of brown. In children up to the year - yellow, greenish|
|Odor||Specific. At children about one year sour.|
|Consistency||Soft. Children up to a year can be liquid.|
|Form||Designed. Children up to six months may be unformed.|
|Impurities||None. Children up to a year may have mucus.|
|pH||slightly acidic, slightly alkaline, neutral, for children up to the year 6.7-7|
|Concealed blood, fresh blood||is absent|
|Bilirubin||is absent, for children up to half a year can normally be present|
|Red blood cells||absent|
|Leukocytes||are absent, in children under one year their presence is a variant of the|
|Muscle fibers unchanged||absent|
|fatty acids are absent|
|Slime||No, children under one year of its presence - option|
|standards Neutral fat||small amount of|
stool color inthe norm is brown( various shades) due to the presence of stercobilin in it. The shades of feces depend on nutrition and medications taken. So, the vegetable diet can give the feces a greenish tinge, coffee and blueberries - black, dairy products - light yellow, beets - red, and antibiotics - golden.
In some pathologies, the color of stools also varies:
- Red-brown cal - bleeding from the lower parts of the intestine.
- Black - bleeding with ulcers of the duodenum or stomach.
- Green - the presence of enteritis, dysbiosis.
- White-gray feces - diseases of the biliary tract, liver.
When deciphering the fecal matter of feces in children( see photo below), that are on the breast( natural) feeding is determined by yellow, green-yellow, golden-yellow color of feces. In artificial animals feces can be light brown or pale yellow.
In children up to six months with feces bilirubin may be excreted, giving a feces a greenish color. That is, if, in addition to the green stool, there are no other symptoms, then this state of treatment does not require.
The presence of protein indicates inflammation in the organs of the digestive tract, polyps, ulcers and neoplasms. In a normal coprogram, the protein is absent.
Blood appears in the stool due to bleeding, which can be caused by helminths, tumors, ulcers, polyps. The altered blood indicates bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the unchanged blood from the lower ones.
An increase in the level of sterbilin appears in the feces with hemolytic anemia. Reduction of this indicator is a sign of blockage of the bile ducts.
The appearance of bilirubin indicates a dysbacteriosis and acute inflammatory processes.
The presence of mucus is a sign of intestinal infections( dysentery, salmonellosis, colitis).However, it is worth considering the age of the child, as with the coprogram of feces( decoding in children), mucus may be a variant of the norm( children up to a year).
The presence of pathological flora is a sign of dysbiosis.
In the coprogram of feces( when decoding in children) detritus, if its amount is below the age-appropriate rate, may indicate a violation in the digestive process.
The presence of a large number of neutral fats - a violation of excretion or absorption of bile.
Unchanged muscle fibers - pancreatic pathologies.
Presence of grains of starch - malabsorption syndrome, chronic pancreatitis.
Soaps( which should normally be a small amount) - the problems of the duodenum, pancreatitis, gallstones.
In the coprogram of stool( decoding in children), leukocytes in large numbers indicate the presence of inflammatory processes of the gastrointestinal tract.
Fatty acids. Normally not determined. If they are present in fecal masses, it is worthwhile to suspect the inadequacy of enzymes, the acceleration of intestinal activity and the violation of the outflow of bile.
Vegetable fiber. If the fibers are insoluble( for example, the skin of vegetables and so on) is the norm option, if there are soluble fibers in the stool, this indicates a lack of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
Connectively woven fibers are normally absent. Their appearance is a sign of an anatomic gastritis, pancreatitis.
The increased content of ammonia in the stool is a sign of inflammation of the intestine.
The presence of pathogenic bacteria - intestinal diseases and dysbacteriosis.
pH of fecal masses can be different( weakly acidic, slightly alkaline, neutral).This indicator depends on human nutrition.
Features of the results
When coprograms of feces( decoding in children under 1 year old and infants) the basic data of coprological research are similar to the data of an adult, however in the child coprogram there are some features.
In children under the age of the presence of leukocytes in feces can be observed even in absolutely healthy babies. If the child normally gaining weight, the parents do not make complaints, then the presence of leukocytes( as well as mucus) is one of the variants of the norm.
In the majority of children, feces have a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction( pH from 6 to 7.6).However, it is worth remembering that the feces of babies are more often sour, depending on the nature of the food.
If deciphering a coprogram of feces in children, the feces have an alkaline reaction, in this case it is worthwhile to suspect imperfect absorption or development of putrefactive processes in the intestine.
For children under three months of age who are breastfeeding, the bilirubin present in the stool is a variant of the norm. When deciphering a fecal curative in older children, only sterocilin should be present.