Algorithm for preparation of disinfecting solutions: types and methods of disinfection
To begin, perhaps, it is necessary that the algorithm for preparing disinfectant solutions is not so complicated, as it seems at first glance. In the preparation of secondary and junior medical personnel, special attention is paid to the issues of disinfection. Because these people support the sanitary and epidemic regime in medical institutions.
Disinfection solutions are prepared immediately before cleaning. And its characteristics also depend on the characteristics of the solutions, for example, concentration and volume. There are four types of disinfection:
- Prophylactic .It is regularly conducted in medical institutions to prevent the development of infectious diseases and patients, and staff.
- Focal .It is mandatory to be carried out by workers of a sanitary-epidemiological station in a hotbed of infection with infectious diseases. This is necessary to stop the spread of infection and prevent massive infection.
- Current .Disinfection, which "accompanies" the patient. That is, it is held wherever there are those who are ill: at home, in an ambulance, in the box of an infectious hospital, in the ward.
- Final. It is carried out in the center of infection by specially trained personnel after recovery or death of the patient.
The amount and concentration of disinfectant solutions are also taken into account when choosing the method of disinfection. The mechanical method involves the removal of microorganisms from the human body, tools and surfaces by washing, washing, wet cleaning or ventilation. This is the most simple method of disinfection, and it is often used to pre-clean medical instruments.
The chemical method is based on the use of various groups of agents that affect microorganisms. They can create a film on the surface of the instrument, can kill bacteria or stop their growth. The choice of the drug depends on the desired final effect. Treatment can be in the form of irrigation, rubbing or falling asleep.
The biological method is based on the confrontation of different types of microorganisms. This allows you to achieve a monoculture of bacteria, which can then be destroyed by any other means. In modern disinfection, this method is no longer used because of its laboriousness.
Thermal method is one of the most common. This is known to all mothers boiling, pasteurization, as well as calcination by dry heat and autoclaving. Special facilities are equipped in medical institutions, the so-called TSO( sterilization treatment center), where the disinfection of materials and instruments takes place.
Radial or physical method involves the use of ultraviolet rays to neutralize microorganisms( quartz).
Classification of disinfectant solutions
The algorithm for preparation of disinfectant solutions depends on the basic substance used for the elimination of microorganisms.
The following groups of drugs are distinguished:
- Halogen compounds: chlorine, iodine, bromine. As a rule, these are alcohol solutions that are diluted with water. They cleanse the skin well and sterilize the surfaces in the operating rooms and wards.
- Chlorinated preparations, such as calcium hypochloride, zhavelion or chloramyl B. Separate.
- Oxygen-containing agents: hydrogen peroxide, viron, seidex, are used for mechanical cleaning of wounds and wiping tools. Getting to the contamination sites, they give an abundant foam, which not only kills microbial agents, but also "pushes" them out of damaged areas.
- Aldehyde containing products - lysoformin and bianol.
- Surface active agents. Samokirovka and minstral are the most frequent representatives.
- Alcohols include preparations based on ethanol, propanol and isopropanol. They form on the surface of the skin a film that does not allow colonization of bacteria. The same principle applies to medical instruments.
Algorithm for the preparation of disinfectant solutions includes all available precautions against getting medications on mucous membranes, in the airway or in the stomach. The rules are primarily concerned with the age of the staff and the state of health.
- Only persons who have reached adulthood are allowed to work with disinfectant solutions. They are required to undergo a medical examination, as well as receive instructions on how to work properly with disinfectants, and sign for a safety journal.
- Pregnant women, as well as young mothers who are breast-feeding children, are suspended from such work. This is due to the fact that in small doses, the preparations still fall into the body of the personnel, which means they can harm the child.
- All medical personnel should use glasses, respirators and protective gloves to reduce harmful effects on the body and prevent chemical burns.
- Staff must undergo a medical examination to determine the onset of occupational disease in time.
solution The algorithm for preparation of disinfecting solutions is quite simple. To clean surfaces in hospitals use solutions of bleach. The sequence of actions for diluting the powder is as follows:
- Wear a bathrobe, mask, goggles and protective gloves.
- A kilogram of dry chlorine lime is poured into a ten-liter bucket. Then slowly pour in this container of water( 10 liters), gently stirring.
- Close the lid and leave for 24 hours.
- Strain the solution, pour it into a bottle of dark glass, tightly cork and write a label indicating the date and time of preparation of the solution.
- The shelf life of such a disinfectant is a week.