Hygienic treatment of the hands of medical personnel: methods, algorithm and preparations
Hygienic treatment of the hands of medical staff is mandatory before any action with the patient. For processing various means and preparations are used, which do not require long time expenditures and are approved by the Pharmacology Committee of the Russian Federation.
Hygienic hand treatment is a disinfection procedure that prevents nosocomial infection, protecting not only the personnel themselves, but also patients. The purpose of the treatment is to neutralize the microbes that are on the human skin after contacting the infected object or are part of the natural flora of the skin.
There are two types of procedure: Hand hygiene and surgical. The first is mandatory before contacting the patient, especially if he is to undergo surgery. Hygienic treatment of the hands of personnel must be carried out after contact with saliva, as well as blood. Disinfection should be carried out before sterile gloves are worn. You can wash your hands with a special soap with the effect of antiseptic or wipe your skin with a substance containing alcohol.
When to perform hygienic treatment of
Hygienic treatment of the hands of medical personnel is mandatory in the following situations:
- After the treatment of patients who are diagnosed with an inflammatory process with the release of pus.
- After contact with instruments and any other object located near the patient.
- After each contact with contaminated surfaces.
- After contact with human mucous membranes, its excreta and gauze dressings.
- After contact with the skin of the patient.
- Before performing the procedures for caring for the injured.
- Before each contact with a patient.
Proper hygienic treatment involves washing with soap and running water to remove contaminants and reduce the number of microorganisms. In addition, hand hygiene treatment is also skin treatment with antiseptic agents that help reduce the number of bacteria to a minimum safe level.
What is used for the treatment of
To wash the hands of nurses, liquid soap is ideal, which is dispensed by a dispensary. It is not recommended to use hot water because of the increased risk of dermatitis. Be sure to use a towel to close the tap, which is not equipped with an elbow. In order to dry clean hands, one should use disposable paper towels( or individual from cloth).
Hygienic hand treatment, the algorithm of which includes several simple steps, can be performed with a skin antiseptic. In this case, preliminary washing with soap is not necessary. The agent is rubbed into the skin of the hands in the amount indicated on the antiseptic package. Particular attention is paid to the fingers, the skin between them and the areas around the nails. A prerequisite for achieving the desired effect is keeping the hands moist during a certain time( usually it is indicated on the tool).After the hygienic treatment of the hands is carried out, it is not necessary to wipe them with a towel.
Equipment for hygiene procedures
In order for the hygienic procedure to be carried out according to all the rules and requirements, the following is required:
- Running water.
- Liquid soap, in which the pH level is neutral.
- Washbasin with mixer, operated without touching the palms( elbow method).
- Antiseptic on alcohol basis. Disposable towels are both sterile and non-sterile.
- Detergent with antimicrobial action.
- Rubber gloves for single use( sterile or non-sterile).
- Hand care.
- Household rubber gloves.
- Urn for used accessories.
In a room where antimicrobial treatment of hands is planned, the washbasin should be located in an accessible place. It is equipped with a crane, through which hot and cold water enters, with a special mixer. The design of the crane must be designed in such a way that the spraying of water is minimal. The hygienic level of hand treatment provides for the maximum reduction of the number of microorganisms on the skin, so it is advisable to install several dispensers with the means near the washbasin. In one - liquid soap, in the other - an antimicrobial drug, one more must be filled with a hand carer.
It is not recommended to dry hands with electric type dryers, as they will still remain wet, and the device will cause an air turbulence where contaminated particles can be found. All tanks with funds must be disposable. In hospitals, it is always necessary to have several antiseptic hand treatment products, some of which are intended for workers with sensitive skin.
Algorithm for conducting
Hand hygiene is mandatory for all employees of health care institutions. The algorithm of the cleansing procedure with soap is as follows:
- Extruding the necessary quantity of liquid soap from the dispenser.
- Wipe in the palm of your hand.
- Wipe one hand on the back of the other.
- Wipes the inner surfaces of the fingers vertically.
- Wipe the back of the fingers of the hand folded into a fist, the palm of the second( the same to do with the other hand).
- Wipe all fingers of your fingers in a circle.
- Wipe each palm with your fingertips.
Surgical hand disinfection is required to completely remove flora from the hands: resistant, as well as transistor. This is done so that the infection can not be transmitted through the hands. Like hygienic hand treatment, surgical disinfection is performed by washing and rubbing. It is common to use solutions for alcohol because of quick and direct action, optimal perception of the product by the skin, a long period of action, the effect of complete removal of microorganisms.
The process of surgical disinfection includes almost the same stages, which involves hand treatment at the hygienic level. Algorithm for surgical antiseptics:
- Wash hands with water and soap and water for at least two minutes.
- Dry hands with a disposable napkin or towel.
- Treat with an antiseptic tool for the hand, forearm, and wrist, without wiping hands afterwards.
- Wait until the product dries completely, put on sterile gloves.
The exposure time of a specific antiseptic preparation, its dosage and other important parameters can be read on the product label or in its instructions. The first hand treatment every shift should include the cleaning of the areas around each nail with a special soft brush - sterile and disposable( or the one that has been sterilized by autoclaving).
Antiseptic solution - one of the main means of fighting microorganisms, which includes hygienic treatment of hands. The algorithm is as follows:
- Washing hands in water at room temperature with liquid soap, drying with a disposable towel.
- Application of disinfectant with rubbing movements, which disinfects hands.
- With the fingers interwoven, massage the back of the hand.
- With your fingers crossed, widely apart, rub your palms.
- Rub the product into thumbs with compressed palms alternately.
- Rubbing the forearms for a minimum of 2 minutes, a maximum of 3 minutes, treatment of the nails and the subungual area.
Each step must be repeated 4-5 times. Throughout the procedure, you need to ensure that your hands do not dry out. If necessary, then another portion of the disinfectant is applied.
Recommended hygiene products
Hand hygiene is an obligatory disinfection process for all medical personnel in contact with patients or various contaminated hospital facilities. For treatment, chlorhexidine bigluconate( alcohol solution) in ethyl alcohol( 70%) is used. In addition, the following drugs are used:
- Ethyl alcohol with additives that effectively soften the skin.
- "Isopropanol" - 60%.
- "Decodept +".
Before carrying out hygienic processing, you must remove all wrist accessories and jewelry. Do not forget about cleaning your hands with a sterile brush, paying special attention to the nail area. The procedure is carried out once at the beginning of the working day.
Requirements for hygienic products
If the tanks for antiseptic and soap are not disposable, then re-fill only after they have been thoroughly disinfected, washed with running water and completely dried. It is recommended to use batchers that work on photocells or those that are squeezed out by the elbow method.
All used antiseptics intended for the treatment of the skin should be located in quick availability at all stages of the healing process. If the unit is aimed at intensive care of patients, then containers with antiseptics should be placed in places most convenient for medical personnel, for example, at the patient's bed or next to the entrance to the hospital ward. It is recommended to provide each employee with individual capacity of a small volume with an antiseptic drug.