Teeth artificial: types and features
Loss of molars can cause many problems of both aesthetic nature and deterioration of the gastrointestinal tract. Artificial teeth - this is not a luxury, but an essential component for people who want to preserve their health. What can modern dentistry offer to restore the dentition? What kinds of dentures are offered by doctors?
Options for prosthetics
Even in the last century, a sign of affluence for many was the installation of gold crowns and teeth. Products of metal alloys were used as a cheaper variant of prosthetics. As you know, aesthetics in such prosthetics were few, but many had to install such solid-cast designs even on the front teeth. This was due to the fact that porcelain or ceramic dentures to the average consumer were virtually inaccessible, and plastic was considered short-lived. Now, these options are used to save money when restoring teeth that are imperceptible when smiling.
Today, if a professional is taken for a job, artificial teeth are completely indistinguishable from natural teeth. For each patient, the doctor can choose the best option, suiting both in quality, appearance and price.
Depending on the number of damaged or lost teeth, the doctor offers 2 fundamentally different types of prosthetics:
- Dental crowns that are fixed on their own teeth or mounted on an implant or pin.
- Teeth are artificial, placed in place of missing teeth as bridges or other structures.
It should be understood that only a professional can evaluate which version of the prosthesis is suitable for the patient. Well, if the damage is small, and the crown can be used. An artificial tooth or a bridge of several elements will have to deal with longer. Depending on the financial capabilities of the patient, the doctor will select the material from which the denture will be made.
Material for prosthetics. Plastic
Crowns and removable or permanent prostheses made of plastic can be considered the most budgetary option for restoration of the dentition. This kind of prosthetics has a number of advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include:
- low price;
- speed of manufacture;
- aesthetic dentures;
- lightness of construction.
Main material shortcomings:
- short structural life;
- probability of cracking;
- risk of allergy to artificial polymers;
- accumulation of microorganisms and food particles in the porous structure of the prosthesis;
- color change;
- large degree of turning teeth for a crown.
Teeth artificial from plastic are often used as a temporary version of prosthetics. They are worn during the manufacture of a more complex construction of other materials.
This is more difficult to manufacture. With such prosthetics, the metal crown is covered with a layer of matched plastic. The combination of materials strengthens strength and extends the life of prostheses, and besides, it looks quite organic.
Metal plastics are often used for prosthetics with pin crowns. This allows you to maintain a healthy root with the loss of the upper part of the tooth.
The service life of structures made of metal plastic is slightly higher than that of plastic crowns and prostheses. The integrity of the material and the appearance of the product remains up to five years.
The installation of artificial teeth from porcelain is one of the most popular types of non-removable prosthetics. These designs are made of pressed ceramics. One of the advantages of the product is the absence of metal impurities. Prosthetics can be carried out even by allergy sufferers who react poorly to polymers and metal alloys.
The technology for manufacturing porcelain dentures involves molded billet molding and high-temperature firing of the finished product. The result is a very robust construction that will last for many years. The front teeth of porcelain look absolutely natural, giving the person self-confidence. Side chewing premolars and molars can withstand heavy loads without damage.
In the case of products made from dental porcelain, artificial teeth are as close as possible to the structure of natural enamel. This allows you to create the perfect smile. Porcelain crowns do not darken, there are no stains on them, it is impossible to distinguish them from natural teeth.
The disadvantage of porcelain prosthetics is that it is impossible to perform bridge structures. An additional disadvantage is the high cost.
For bridging prosthetics, the best material is cermet. This is a more complex construction of a metal frame covered with a layer of dental porcelain. Such a product is mounted on supports, and is capable of withstanding a heavy load. Thus, it is possible to restore the dentition by filling in the empty spaces.
The maximum strength of the product is achieved by layer-by-layer deposition of porcelain on the metal basis of the prosthesis. Each layer is fired in a high-temperature furnace.
The disadvantage of such a prosthesis is that the supporting teeth are depulpated and stapled. And the advantages, in addition to the above qualities, include low traumatic prosthesis for gums, the possibility of minor repairs without removing the product.
Prosthetics on implants
Dentists have perfected artificial prosthetic teeth for several centuries. The apex of progress today is implant prosthetics. This work is three-component:
- In the patient's jaw, an artificial root of titanium is implanted, that is, an implant.
- In the implant, the abutment is fixed, that is, the upper part of the structure that connects to the artificial root with a conical or hexagonal junction.
- The abutment fixes the crown part of the tooth, made of cermets or ceramics.
This type of prosthetics allows not to spoil the teeth adjacent to the structure by grinding. The load on the jaw when the implant is placed is distributed as physiologically as possible. In fact, artificial teeth on implants behave as if alive, and in addition to this, there is no competition for aesthetics of such prosthetics today.