Main Causes of Injury
An important medical and social problem is illness. Nobody is immune to them. Illnesses worsen the quality of life. Sometimes they even lead to death. But not only do the diseases worry specialists. The group of medical and social problems still includes injuries. Because of severe injuries, people become disabled, lose their ability to work, lose interest in life. The causes of injuries are diverse. Knowing them, you can prevent the occurrence of damage.
The concept of injury and injury, the classification of
Before beginning to understand any of the reasons, it is important to understand the difference between such concepts as "trauma" and "injury".The first term denotes a negative effect on the body, leading to a violation of physiological processes and the integrity of tissues.
Traumatism is the totality of injuries. They arise in certain categories of persons when they are in the same type of situation. In view of the conditions for obtaining injuries, classification of injuries is made. The
- Production. It is connected with people's fulfillment of their professional duties. Since there are different areas of activity, specialists additionally distinguish industrial, construction, transport, agricultural and other subspecies of traumatism.
- Nonproduction. In this type of injury, the causes are not related to work and the performance of professional duties. It is subdivided into several subspecies. For example, there is road traffic injuries. It is observed in cases when people fall into an accident. Still non-productive traumatism can be sports, household, street.
Intentional injuries are a separate group. It is characterized by 2 groups of situations. In one of them, injuries are observed due to the fact that a person or a group of people harm another person or society. This is the case for crimes, terrorism. The second group of situations inherent in causing harm to a person himself. This is possible when committing suicide.
Causes of injuries and occupational diseases at work
Occupational injuries are a very urgent problem for all countries. The International Labor Organization and the International Social Security Association note that around 125 million accidents occurring in the workplace are recorded annually in the world. More than 1 million people are killed due to injuries.
In Russia, people get injuries very often. This is confirmed by statistics. In accordance with the fixed number of accidents, our country occupies one of the first places in the world in terms of occupational injuries and occupational diseases. The causes of damage to employees of enterprises and organizations are different. The most frequently observed is the lack of protective equipment. Unfortunately, Russian employers are trying to save on everything. They cut costs in different directions, including the acquisition of protective equipment.
The second common cause of occupational injuries relates to unsatisfactory work organization. As an example, we can cite the situation when managers send employees to perform any tasks without having the necessary knowledge and without training.
Not always the causes of occupational injuries are the negligence of employers, their desire to get more profit with minimal expenses. The receipt of injuries by employees is associated with a personal( psychophysiological) condition. To it carry overstrain of visual, acoustical or tactile analyzers, overstrain, fatigue, which arises from physical overloads and stressful situations.
Methods of analyzing the causes of occupational injuries
Since industrial injuries are very common, specialists have developed methods for analyzing its causes. They are necessary for the development of preventive measures to combat industrial injuries. There are the following basic methods of cause analysis:
The very first in the list of methods for analyzing the causes of injuries provides accurate and most comprehensive information. When it is used in each specific accident, working conditions, technological processes are investigated. In this case, the monographic method is the most expensive, because it requires the involvement of a large number of specialists.
The statistical method is used to determine general preventive measures. For this, traumatism specialists consider as a function of various variables. Identifying the most important variables and determining the nature of their influence is the main goal of the statistical method.
When using the economic method, losses are estimated because of the impact of the causes of industrial injuries associated with the violation of technological processes, safety regulations, etc. Additionally, the socio-economic effectiveness of measures taken to prevent the recurrence of accidents at work is determined.
Why people get into traffic accidents
For many hundreds of years, humanity has suffered from a huge number of diseases. There were such ailments that spared neither young nor adults, took the lives of millions of people. Today, medicine has medicines and vaccines that have saved the population of our planet from terrible and dangerous diseases. However, a new "epidemic" - road traffic injuries - has replaced the eliminated ailments.
World statistics on road traffic injuries is disappointing. Annually, 50 million people are injured on the roads. About 1.2 million of them die. In the future, these numbers may increase. Forecasts of experts indicate that over the next 20 years, victims of road traffic injuries will be more by 65%.
In order to reduce road accidents in the future, it is important to understand why people get into an accident. Here is a list of the causes of injuries:
- Crossing the road in an unidentified place. This is one of the most common reasons. Studies conducted in Uganda, Mexico and Brazil have shown that people often choose a short path, albeit more dangerous. They cross the road in the wrong place.
- Not subject to control signals. Some pedestrians cross the road to a red light. Especially often this mistake is made by children. They believe that they will have time to cross the road or the driver will notice them and will miss them. Unfortunately, not always the expectations coincide with reality.
- Finding children near the roadway without adult supervision. Often one can observe a situation where children play by the road - they toss each other the ball, play catch-up games. At such times, boys and girls are passionate about their children's pursuits and forget about the dangers that the carriageway carries in itself.
- Driver's violation of traffic rules. Culprits of road accidents are those people who are behind the wheel. Some drivers allow themselves to exceed the speed, do not skip pedestrians on the zebra, drive the vehicle in a state of intoxication.
Sports injuries are observed in people who are involved in different sports. He occupies a share of 2-5% in the structure of general traumatism. Sports injuries in rare cases lead to fatal outcomes. In general, it is characterized by damage. The causes of injury cause light, moderate and severe injuries.
To slight damage include abrasions, minor bruises, stretching of the 1 st degree, which do not cause significant disorders in the body and loss of general and sports performance. Medium-heavy injuries are called lesions, which lead to pronounced changes in the body. Because of them, sport disability occurs for a period of 10 days to 1 month. Due to severe injuries, severe health problems are caused. They provoke the onset of sports disability for a period exceeding 1 month.
Each injury is caused by certain causes. All of them are subdivided by specialists into several groups.
|Group||List of explanatory reasons|
|Reasons for organizational nature||Wrong training by trainers, unfavorable sanitary and hygienic and meteorological conditions in places where training and competitions are held( poor lighting, rain, fog).|
|Poor technical, physical and psychological training of athletes||Insufficient number of trainings, excessive emotional tension.|
|Causes caused by the individual characteristics of the athletes||The discrepancy between the level of the athlete's preparation for the task( a similar situation is observed when a person after a long break decides to immediately start performing complex exercises).|
|Infringement by sportsmen of the rules operating during trainings and competitions||Rudeness shown in relation to opponents, application of the forbidden receptions during trainings, competitions.|
Characteristics of household injuries
Household injuries are a common sight. People who are at home, in the apartment or in the yard, feel safe, relax as much as possible and at the same time forget about the necessity of observing the elementary rules of safety when working with household appliances, cutting objects. Because of this, injuries, burns, bruises. But it is also important to note that the main causes of injuries in everyday life are also connected with conflicts. Fights with relatives, friends most often occur because of alcoholic intoxication.
The above situations occur for reasons that are specific to humans. Damage, negligence, haste, inept handling of objects and devices, and conflict with drunken people contribute to injury. In some cases, the causes of domestic injuries are determined by age:
- In children, injuries in everyday life arise from the lack of skills, skills and knowledge, curiosity, hooliganism, hyperactivity. Children most often suffer from ages 1 to 4 who still can not reason and evaluate traumatic situations. Negative role is additionally played by the lack of supervision by adults, inadequate educational work. Often, the causes of injuries are parents themselves, who ineptly treat the child( drop him from the stroller, hand).
- In the elderly, the causes of injuries are health problems( heart weakness, cerebral blood flow disorder) and a reassessment of their physical abilities.
Details of street damage
In public places, on the street people often become victims of street injuries. This is a fairly extensive group of damages that can be caused by bad weather phenomena, negligence of some people, businesses, accidents, conflict situations with absolutely unfamiliar mentally unbalanced or drunk people.
If we consider bad weather, then most people suffer from ice. Falls provoke the appearance of fractures, brain concussions, ruptures and sprains of ligaments. Fractures are observed in almost 70% of cases. In this case, the limbs are mostly injured. To the bad weather phenomena causing injuries, another storm is considered. During it a lightning strike is possible.
The negligence of individuals and businesses, mentioned above among the main causes of injuries on the street, is associated with weather events. Here's a good example. In winter, with abundant snowfall, one of the main problems is snow canopies on multi-storey buildings, hanging icicles. Cleaning roofs is the responsibility of management companies, but unfortunately they do not always do it. Because of this, snow canopies and icicles pose a serious danger to passers-by.
On the last factor - fights with strangers - it is important to know that conflict situations most often occur in places of large crowds( at concerts, during holidays at celebrations).The causes of injury are disputes, insults, attempts to impose their point of view.
There are many examples of intentional injuries. One of them is terrorism. Its reasons are political, religious. Terrorist organizations for the commission of acts deliberately choose places with a large number of people( shopping centers, markets, station buildings, metro, aircraft).
Intentional injuries can also be observed in places of detention. In almost half of the cases, those serving sentences are injured in the process of conflict with their cellmates or because of personal imprudence. Sometimes the causes of injuries of people in prison are associated with deliberate harming their own health.
Another example of intentional injuries( but not in places of confinement, but in ordinary life) is suicide, suicide attempts. Experts estimated that annually more than 800 thousand people settle scores with life. Many more people make suicidal attempts. The most terrible thing is that people of different ages are being suicided. Among them there are even children. A single explanation for why people commit suicide and suicide attempts does not exist. In many cases, all this is done impulsively in the presence of easy access to drugs, pesticides, firearms. Adults to suicidal pushes difficult life circumstances, unrequited love, and children - bullying peers, falling into groups that have a psychological, hypnotic effect.
Prevention of injuries in adults
Preventive measures are determined by the type of injury. For example, in order to avoid occupational injuries, engineers and workers need to perform the tasks that are available to them, do not pose a danger to them. The fact that there are diseases in which you can not engage in certain activities. This leads to the conclusion that it is necessary to avoid the influence of the causes of occupational injuries related to the state of health.
In addition, engineering and technical workers and workers need to carefully follow their professional duties, observe the rules of equipment operation. The tasks of employers are to provide their employees with protective equipment and to familiarize them with possible causes of work injuries, train personnel, and monitor workers' compliance with safety regulations.
For road traffic injuries, the main preventive measure is observance of traffic rules by pedestrians and drivers. The state requires rational planning and improvement of streets, the use of sand on the roads during the ice, so that people do not fall on the roadway, proper street lighting.
For prevention of other types of injuries, the measures listed in the table below are provided.
|Type of injury||Basic preventive measures|
|Sports||Good warming up of muscles and warm-up before classes, wearing comfortable shoes, using high-quality sports equipment, proper exercise, adequate calculation of your strengths and abilities.|
|Household||Improvement of living conditions, observance of safety rules when using household appliances.|
|Street||Careful movement through the streets in the autumn-winter period, fencing of the buildings being repaired and under construction, anti-alcohol propaganda.|
|Intentional||Combating crime and terrorist organizations, conducting educational and outreach work with the public.|
Preventive measures for children
Special attention should be paid to the prevention of childhood injuries, as various injuries in 4.5% of cases are causes of disability and about 7%( and according to some authors - in 22%) cases - causes of death. The main areas of preventive work include:
- creating a home safe environment( children should not be available household appliances, poisonous substances, pills, sharp, cutting objects);
- formation of safe behavior skills in a variety of life situations( this requires educational work, education of children);
- hardening and physical development of children, aimed at strengthening the musculoskeletal system and the development of coordination of movements.
In conclusion, it should be noted that damage in humans can occur in different situations. Some are affected by the causes of occupational injuries associated with the state of health, others are victims of criminals. These and other situations are most often associated with their own carelessness, inattention, misunderstanding of danger. Always need to be vigilant, because periodically in the media there are reports of ridiculous cases in which people die or become disabled for life.