Antibiotics for children with bronchitis: which ones to choose?
Bronchitis is one of the most common and serious respiratory diseases in children. Often doctors prescribe antibiotics for treatment. But this is not always justified. In most cases, bronchitis is caused by a viral infection or an allergic reaction. And antibiotics are needed to fight bacteria or other microorganisms. Unjustified prescription of such drugs can cause complications and harm the health of the child. Therefore, antibiotics should be used for children with bronchitis only after carrying out the necessary tests and determining the cause of the disease.
When it is necessary to prescribe antibacterial drugs
Antibiotics for children with bronchitis are prescribed in the presence of bacterial infection. Such preparations for viruses do not work and only worsen the state of the child, as they reduce immunity. And to determine the causative agent of the disease is possible only when analyzing sputum, which is not always done. Therefore, there are other signs that indicate the presence of bacteria in the child's body:
- for more than 3 days keeps the temperature to 38 degrees;
- to the child hardly to breathe, even in rest there is a dyspnea;
- leaves viscous greenish sputum with impurities of pus;
- signs of intoxication;
- if the child is less than a year old.
In no case should one give antibiotics alone for bronchitis for children 4 years and under. Only a doctor can decide whether such medications are necessary for the child.
How to use antibiotics
The main rule for the use of such drugs is that they should be taken under strict medical supervision. Only a specialist can choose the right medicine and determine its dosage and duration of administration. And parents must comply with all of its regulations. In most cases, antibiotics for bronchitis for children 7 years and older are given in the form of tablets or capsules. But there are now such drugs in the form of suspensions or syrup, which is more convenient for small children.
How correctly to apply antibiotics for children with bronchitis?
- Usually, these drugs are prescribed for a period of 5 to 7 days. If bronchitis occurs with complications and in chronic form, the reception time can be extended to 2 weeks. You can not stop taking your medication yourself earlier than this time, even if there is an improvement. Bacteria can develop resistance to the antibiotic.
- One of the features of the use of such drugs is the schedule of admission. Drink them must be strictly at regular intervals - 8, 12 or 24 hours. This is the only way to ensure a constant level of antibacterial substances in the blood.
- When prescribing an antibiotic for children, it is very important to determine the exact dosage. It depends on the age and body weight of the child.
- It is necessary to study the instruction to find out before the meal or after you need to take the drug.
What antibiotics are prescribed for children with bronchitis
According to the rules, you can choose antibiotics for the treatment of bronchitis only after determining the pathogen. But most often, preparations of a broad spectrum of action are prescribed. According to the experience of doctors, the causative agents of bronchitis are the most sensitive to three types of antibiotics:
- penicillins - "Amoxicillin", "Amoxiclav", "Flemoxin solute";
- cephalosporins - "Ceftriaxone", "Cefotaxime", "Zinnat";
- macrolides - "Macropen", "Sumamed", "Chemomycin".
The choice of the drug depends on the age of the child, the state of his health and the features of the course of the disease.
How to use antibiotics for bronchitis for children 3 years and under
At this age, inflammation of the bronchi is very dangerous because of the features of the anatomy and physiology of the child. Much more often complications of bronchitis occur in babies. Small bronchi are clogged with phlegm, and it leaves very hard, which can cause the development of pneumonia. Therefore, in many cases, the treatment of this disease occurs in the hospital.
If there is a need for taking antibacterial drugs, then at this age, many of them are contraindicated. In addition, antibiotics for bronchitis for children 1 year and younger are most commonly used as injections. In this way, the medicine acts faster. A doctor's observation in the treatment of antibiotics in children is necessary because these drugs often cause serious side effects. In young children, except for diarrhea and vomiting, there may be convulsions, faints and a change in the picture of blood.
Antibiotics of penicillin group
These antibacterial drugs are active against most pathogens of bronchitis. But they have many side effects, most often cause allergic reactions or dysbiosis. Therefore, they should be taken together with vitamins C and B, as well as with probiotics to preserve the intestinal microflora. It should be taken into account that the penicillins are active against staphylococci, streptococci and pneumococci, but they are ineffective against chlamydia and mycoplasmas, which can also cause bronchitis.
This group is more often prescribed antibiotics for bronchitis for children 10 years and younger: "Amoxicillin", "Flemoxin solute", "Sulbactam", "Ospamox."Antibacterial action is marked by drugs containing amoxicillin with clavulanic acid: "Amoxiclav", "Augmentin".
The antibiotics of the cephalosporins group also effectively kill bacteria: Zinnat, Cefadox, Loprax, Supraks. They are used less often, mainly if the patient is intolerant of penicillins. They are also used in the complex therapy of complicated bronchitis. Most often prescribe to children several drugs.
- "Zinnat" is available in the form of granules for the preparation of a suspension. Applied for children from 3 months.
- "Supraks" - cephalosporin of the 3rd generation. The drug is prohibited for babies up to six months. Suspension should be given to a child 2-3 times a day.
- "Ceftriaxone" - a very effective drug that helps cope with inflammation in 3-4 days. But this antibiotic is produced in a solution for injections.
This group of drugs is prescribed most recently, since penicillins and cephalosporins cause intestinal microflora disorders and other side effects. Macrolides do not have a toxic effect on the kidneys and intestines. In addition, they are active against a large number of microorganisms and penetrate deep into the cells. Therefore, they are considered more effective. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics for bronchitis for children 5 years and older:
- "Azithromycin" and its import analogue "Sumamed";
Which antibiotic to choose
The safest and most effective drugs are those containing amoxicillin. But there are bacteria that mutated and became insensitive to the action of these drugs. Therefore, you need to choose such drugs from this group that contain clavulanate or sulbactam. On the package it should be written: "Amoxicillin + clavulanate."The most effective in this regard are modern drugs.
- "Amoxiclav" is a suspension that is used for children from 3 months. You need to give depending on the weight of the child 2 times a day. The drug has great efficacy against pathogens of bronchitis.
- "Flemoxin Solutab" - a drug based on amoxicillin, is shown to children from 1 month. Effectively removes inflammation.
- "Augmentin" is often prescribed for bronchitis. The combination of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid effectively destroys bacteria. Children are prescribed a drug in the form of a suspension.
Features of antibiotic treatment
The main thing that parents should know is that you can not give antibiotics yourself to a child without prescribing a doctor. In addition, with this treatment, several rules must be observed:
- if after 3 days of improvement does not occur or the child becomes worse, the drug should be canceled, but the doctor must do it;
- it is very important to observe the dosage prescribed by the doctor and not to miss the time of taking the medication;
- antibiotics disrupt the intestinal microflora, therefore simultaneously with them probiotics are appointed: "Lineks", "Normobakt", "Bifiform";
- with such treatment it is important to constantly monitor the reaction of the child and, if side effects occur, stop taking the medication and inform the pediatrician.
Antibiotics for children are prescribed by a specialist in severe bacterial infections. You can not choose your own medicine. These drugs are very serious drugs, often causing side effects.