TKDG of cerebral vessels. Transcranial dopplerography of cerebral vessels
Headaches and decreased mental activity do not just happen. Most often, these symptoms occur in vascular diseases. Poor blood circulation in the arteries and veins of the brain leads to ischemic damage. In severe cases, a lack of oxygen can cause a stroke. As you know, this disease is quite dangerous. Acute disruption of blood circulation in the vessels of the brain often leads to paralysis, the development of convulsive syndrome, in severe cases, a fatal outcome is possible. Chronic hypoxia arises from the narrowing of the lumen of the arteries by atherosclerotic plaques( plaques).As a result, functions such as memory, sleep, and mental abilities are violated.
To assess the state of the circulation, perform TCDG vessels of the brain. This study is necessary when suspicion of discirculatory encephalopathy, ONMI, arterial and venous anomalies. This diagnostic procedure can be performed in almost any clinic.
TCDG research - what is it?
In the modern world, there are many methods for diagnosing CNS pathologies. With each year, research is improved, becoming less harmful to the body and more informative. These requirements are met by a diagnostic method, such as transcranial dopplerography of cerebral vessels. Thanks to this research, it is possible to evaluate not only the condition of the arteries and veins, but also the blood flow inside them. The basis of TCD is an ultrasound diagnostic method. The essence of the method is that the device has the ability to capture echoes emanating from erythrocytes. After that, the information is displayed on the screen of the monitor connected to the sensor.
With the help of such equipment, the doctor can evaluate the shape and location of the vessels, the condition of their lumen, the direction of blood flow. These data are of great diagnostic value, since they allow one to judge the presence of pathologies such as encephalopathy, malformation, aneurysm, and ONMC.The listed diseases are socially significant, as they often lead to disability. Therefore, for suspected similar pathologies, TCDD of cerebral vessels is an obligatory diagnostic method. The study is safe for the body and highly informative.
Indications for transcranial dopplerography
Doppler examination of cerebral and neck vessels is performed on an outpatient basis, as it is not an invasive diagnostic method. It is completely painless and safe. TCDG is not accompanied by radiation exposure to the body of the subject and the doctor. Indications for dopplerography of the vessels of the neck and head are suspicions of a violation of blood flow and a narrowing of the lumen of the arteries or veins. Similar changes testify to vascular diseases, which require constant monitoring of the doctor and treatment. Indications for dopplerography:
- Acute disorders of cerebral circulation. These include hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, as well as conditions preceding the ONMC.
- Atherosclerosis of the arteries of the neck and head. With this pathology, there is a narrowing of the lumen of the vessels due to the fact that fatty overlays accumulate in the endothelium - cholesterol plaques.
- Circulatory encephalopathy. Occurs in the background of chronic hypoxia. DEP can develop due to atherosclerosis and osteochondrosis. In neglected cases leads to dementia.
- Malformation of vessels. Refers to congenital anomalies and consists in the wrong arrangement and connection of the arterial and venous system.
- An aneurysm of the vessels of the neck and head, as well as an increase in blood pressure.
TCDG should be performed not only when these pathologies are suspected, but if they are present. This is necessary to evaluate the control of treatment.
Variants of transcranial dopplerography
Doppler examination of cerebral vessels and neck can be performed in different ways. The choice of the procedure depends on the symptoms of the disease. Based on the clinical picture, the doctor has the opportunity to suspect the localization of the affected vessel. There are 3 options for the study:
- Carotid ultrasonography - performed when the sensor is mounted on the surface vessels of the neck. Given that the carotid artery feeds the cerebral vessels, this study allows you to judge the presence or absence of cerebral ischemia. Indications are fainting, memory loss, neurological disorders.
- TKDG of cerebral vessels - the device is installed in the projection of large cerebral arteries. With the help of transcranial access, the state of the brain is assessed. Temporal, occipital and temporal regions are investigated.
- Transorbital scanning. It is carried out with suspicion of changes in the vessels of the eyes.
Contraindications to TKDG
The main advantage of TKDG of cerebral vessels is that the study is safe for the body. It can be performed by children of child age, pregnant women, as well as people suffering from chronic pathologies. There are no contraindications to the transcranial dopplerography. Nevertheless, it is undesirable to perform in acute attacks of cardiac and respiratory failure.
Preparation for TKDG of arteries and veins of head and neck
Dopplerography of the arteries of the head and neck is not accompanied by harmful effects and is a painless method. Therefore, preparation for the TCDG is not necessary. Particularly impressionable patients should explain the purpose of the procedure. Sedation preparations are not shown as preparation. Before the procedure, you need to remove ornaments and remove the mobile phone.
Technique for performing the
examination Transcranial dopplerography is performed in the patient's position while sitting on a chair. With this access, duplex or triplex scanning is performed. The ultrasonic sensor is mounted relative to the auricle. The examination is started from the front, then the device is moved upwards( into the temporal and parietal region), then back. This allows you to alternately assess the blood flow in all areas of the brain. At the end of the study, the sensor is placed in the occiput. Thus, one can judge the condition of the cerebellar zone, the veins of Galen and Rosenthal. Also, transcranial scans assess the condition of the vertebral artery.
TKDG of cerebral vessels: interpretation of the results
The results of TKDG of vessels are evaluated in real time by a physician of functional diagnostics. Due to the fact that the image comes to the screen, a specialist can immediately make a conclusion about the condition of the arteries or veins. With triplex scanning, the vessels are painted red and blue. This allows us to judge the interaction of the venous and arterial system. Thanks to TCDG, it is possible to estimate the rate of blood flow along the vessels, its direction. Dopplerography also allows to judge the condition of the valve apparatus, the internal wall of the arteries. Slow blood flow or its vortex indicate a narrowing of the lumen of the vessel. In this case, a consultation of a neuropathologist and a vascular surgeon is necessary.
In which clinics perform TCDG
When a suspicion of vascular disorders, the neurologist almost always directs patients to the TKDG of cerebral vessels. Where to do this examination? Choosing a clinic does not affect the result of the procedure, so the patient can decide for himself: where to perform this procedure. TKDG is carried out in almost all paid medical centers, as well as in polyclinics of a wide profile, having a department of functional diagnostics.