Jaundice: symptoms in adults, causes and types. How is jaundice treated?
The liver is one of the most important toilers of our body. Her work can not be overestimated: she is involved in the process of digestion, produces the necessary hormones and vitamins, participates in the metabolism and hemopoiesis system, performs the function of a defender and a cleaner from harmful toxins and products of vital activity. This body is indispensable in the literal sense of the word - there are no artificial analogues that could replace it at least for a while. Because the liver - this is something that must be carefully guarded throughout his life and in case of problems, immediately seek help and begin competent treatment. To one of the most frequent and widespread problems it is possible to carry a disease, which in everyday life is called this: jaundice. Symptoms in adults and children are easy to determine, they are obvious: the skin of a person, eye proteins and mucous membranes acquire a yellowish tinge. This is a clear signal that the body needs help.
Jaundice in children and adults
In the first days after the birth of a baby, many mothers may encounter a so-called baby jaundice. This condition is considered the norm for the baby, does not require treatment and goes by itself during the week. But jaundice( symptoms) in adults should be regarded as a signal that the body has failed. Often, true jaundice can be confused with a false one. Yellowness to the skin can attach excessive consumption of vitamins or products containing carotene( oranges, pumpkin, carrots or beets).To distinguish true jaundice from carotin is easy: with a false color, only the skin changes, but eyes and mucous membranes remain unchanged.
In fact, the manifestations, which are commonly called jaundice, are symptoms. In adults and children, they can arise due to a number of pathologies or diseases, but this happens when the body can not fully clear itself of bilirubin, a product formed during the decomposition of hemoglobin. In a normal state, it should be excreted from the body with feces, but if for some reason this did not happen, bilirubin begins to accumulate in the blood. The body tries to purify itself by any other means: through the kidneys or the skin, because they acquire an icteric tint - to the color of bilirubin. Such a symptom may be the result of various diseases, it is important to find out the true cause of its occurrence and to provide medical assistance as soon as possible.
Types and causes of
For correct treatment, it is important to establish the cause of jaundice( symptoms).In adults, several basic conditions can be distinguished:
- Jaundice obturational - occurs as a result of the pathology of the gallbladder or due to blockage of the outflow ducts. It can occur with helminthic invasion, blockage with stones, in the presence of tumors or other causes of stagnation of bile. Jaundice parenchymatous is the result of metabolic hepatic disorders associated with hepatocyte disruption. Bilirubin is not converted into a compound bile, but remains in an unchanged state. In this form, it enters the bloodstream, and then spreads throughout the body. The cause can be a variety of liver diseases: cirrhosis, hepatitis, cancers, mononucleosis, sepsis, toxic or infectious lesions.
- Hemolytic jaundice - occurs as a result of a malfunction in the hematopoietic system, which causes the development of bilirubin to be disrupted. It can be a consequence of autoimmune disease, extensive hematomas, lymphomas, anemia, intoxication, or hereditary predisposition.
The first symptoms of jaundice in adults are the yellowness of the eyeball( sclera) and the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth and tongue. It is easier to identify with good daylight. The intensity of staining can be different, from lemon to yellow-orange color. The skin of the face, especially around the mouth, nose and cheeks acquires a characteristic shade, palms and feet also turn yellow. Over time, yellowness spreads throughout the body, dyeing the skin, tissue and even bone tissue. The patient notes worsening of the general condition, there is a chill, a headache and often tenderness in the zone of the liver( right hypochondrium).The symptoms of intoxication are manifested: nausea, dizziness, loss of appetite, fever, pain in the muscles. In some cases, there is biliary eructation and itching. The patient noticeably loses weight. Urine acquires a dark shade, with shaking can foam and resembles beer. But the stool masses are discolored on the contrary.
Can I get jaundice?
Such a thought appears usually when someone from loved ones has already got jaundice( symptoms).In adults, how is this disease transmitted and is it dangerous for other family members? By itself, jaundice is a consequence of other diseases, therefore it is necessary to exert all forces to prevent the infection of other family members. An exception can only be a disease caused by a hereditary predisposition, it also includes jaundice of newborns and pregnant women, which is the norm and is associated with hormonal changes. And also those kinds of jaundice that were not caused by an external pathogen. Most viral infections are transmitted by close contact, as well as through food and drink, so you should strictly follow the precautionary measures. A common cause may be viral hepatitis. Such a disease is transmitted not only from person to person, but also from sick animals hepatitis - dogs or cats. In this case, the virus is transmitted from the animal to humans only by direct contact, food and water in such cases do not become infected.
Correct diagnosis is extremely important. It is necessary to establish the cause, because of which jaundice( symptoms) appeared in adults. Treatment will be aimed at eliminating the underlying disease, and a course of therapy will also be prescribed that will help clear the body of bilirubin. The specialist will conduct an external examination, assign a number of tests and establish the root cause. The patient will need to donate blood, feces and urine for analysis. Additionally, ultrasound may be used to determine the liver, bile ducts and spleen. In parenchymal jaundice, laparoscopy of the liver is performed.
In case of serious diseases requiring surgical intervention, as well as in hepatitis, a liver biopsy and additional scanning( celiacography and splenoportography) are prescribed. Other types of research may be prescribed. Correctly diagnosed and timely treatment will help not only cure, but also reduce the risk of dangerous complications. And so it looks like jaundice itself( symptoms in adults), the photo allows you to compare the color of the sclera of a healthy person and a patient with a high content of bilirubin in the blood.
Treatment methods can be completely different and depend on the clinical form of the disease. The main therapy is aimed at eradicating the underlying cause of the disease and eliminating the consequences.
- When an infectious disease is prescribed antiviral drugs, as well as medicines aimed at maintaining and restoring the function of the liver. Such jaundice( symptoms in adults) infection can provoke in people coming into contact with the patient. Because the treatment is carried out in the infectious departments of hospitals with limited access to visit.
- If the disease is caused by a mechanical factor( obstructive jaundice), then treatment is appointed radically. Tumors or stones are removed by surgery, drainage ducts for normal outflow of bile are provided.
- With hemolytic jaundice, hormonal therapy is prescribed for glucocorticoids. In some cases, surgical removal of the spleen is indicated.
Bilirubin, which is abundant in the tissues of patients, decomposes well under the influence of ultraviolet rays. Therefore, light therapy( phytotherapy) can be prescribed. With jaundice, a fractional diet and a sparing diet are recommended.
Treatment with home remedies
Traditional medicine offers a variety of options for treating such ailment. Basically, this herbal collection, having a diuretic effect, as well as dispersing bile. These include infusions or decoctions of plantain, dandelion, St. John's wort, calendula, yarrow, birch leaves and many others. But remember, before you start such a treatment, you should always consult with your doctor, because only he can determine the real cause of jaundice and give effective recommendations. To choose a way of treatment it is necessary to start from the put diagnosis, otherwise health can cause irreparable harm.
Consequences of the disease in adults
With a timely and correct treatment, the prognosis is positive. But in case of serious pathologies( liver cancer, cirrhosis or hepatitis A and C) jaundice can take a chronic form and even cause death. Often one can face the erroneous opinion that the jaundice( symptoms) experienced in childhood in adult men can cause problems with reproductive function. This statement is not entirely true. A man who has recovered from jaundice may well become the father of a healthy child. But with such a disease as hepatitis, caution should be exercised. At the time of conception of the baby, both parents should be healthy, and this applies not only to the pope, but to the mother of the unborn child. For the prevention of hepatitis, people who are in contact with a sick person are injected with an immunoglobulin. If the future mother is healthy and has such a vaccination, then her baby will be born completely healthy.
Consequences of suffered jaundice in childhood
In the case of babies who, after the birth of the "newborn's jaundice", but she did not pass after two weeks, or intrauterine infection from mother to child occurred, immediate treatment should be prescribed. This current is called "nuclear jaundice" and it is a serious pathology. The main danger of the disease is the effect of bilirubin on the brain cells, subsequently it can affect the child's mental development or the violation of some functions: speech, hearing, sight or coordination. The mortality of children in the nuclear current is very high and reaches about 50%.
Diet: what can and why not?
It is very important to stick to a diet if you have jaundice( symptoms).In adults, food should be gentle and do not load the gallbladder and liver.
You can not eat: fried, stew, as well as poultry, fish and products with their use( soups, cereals, stew vegetables and cook broths).Contraindicated in any type of canned food, pickles and marinades. Confectionery and bakery products, chocolate, tea, ice cream, as well as sour fruits or vegetables and eggs. It is necessary to exclude fatty and containing rough fiber food, alcohol and spices are counter-indicative. Food should not be hot or cold.
You can eat: light vegetable dishes, cereals, spaghetti, rusks and gray bread, vegetable oils and low-fat dairy products. In a moderate amount you can eat steamed or boiled poultry, fish and lean meat. Fresh fruit is useful.
First of all, you need to comply with personal hygiene measures, thoroughly wash your hands before eating and carefully treat the choice of a sexual partner. Vaccination against viral hepatitis will also help to avoid an unpleasant disease in which jaundice( symptoms) occur in adults. How to treat such manifestations of modern medicine is well aware, but remember that in the first place your health depends on yourself. The disease is always easier to prevent, rather than treat and combat its consequences.