Ankle joint ligaments: anatomy. The structure of the ankle
The daily load on the ankle is colossal, because it is able to carry the entire body weight of a person. For this reason, the ankle is called the most vulnerable joint. Even the slightest injury or damage to one of the ankle components leads to a person losing the ability to move normally, since such situations are associated with a strong pain syndrome. The bones of the ankle are very fragile.
An important point is attentive to any manifestations of leg pain or changes in feet. In this situation, you should immediately consult a doctor. It is better to identify pathology in a timely manner and begin therapy. Only in this case the risk of complications is significantly reduced.
In the article we will consider the anatomy of the ligaments of the ankle joint.
Anatomy of the ankle
Anatomy of the ankle is quite complicated, in its area connect muscles, bones and ligaments. Thanks to the ankle, a person can keep his balance and move in the usual way. The muscular frame allows the bones to withstand significant loads, and also protects the musculoskeletal system from injury. The circulatory blood vessels provide nutrition to the entire bunch of ankle joint.
Anatomy is not simple, so this often causes damage, which is caused by heavy loads. To avoid getting injuries, complications and inflammatory processes, you need to understand the structure of the ankle.
Ankle joint is located at the junction of small and large tibia, as well as talus bones. Immediately there is a talus-peroneal ligament. All these bones form a cavity in which the joint is directly located. They also assume the main burden during movement, since it is the ankle region that accounts for the entire mass of the human body.
The cavity, which is formed by the talus and tibia, is divided into three parts: the outer ankle, the distal and inner surface of the tibia. The external ankle is attached fascia and tendons, including hyaline cartilage. Muscles, joints and tendons bind all bones of the ankle and feet. This gives the foot a flexibility and ensures good cushioning when walking. The ankle joint is unique.
Anatomy of the calcaneus bone
The heel bone can be safely considered the most massive of all those located in the foot area. Anatomy of the calcaneus is unique, its main function is a kind of springboard when moving. It is massive and has high endurance, but under the influence of many factors it can easily be damaged. What pathologies in its area can be formed?
Heel bone connects to other bones. It is located directly under the talus bone, which is connected to the heel by a short heel appendage. Behind it is a powerful hillock, from which the lateral and medial processes extend from the sole. The second is connected with the tendon of the flexor of the toes. Further, the joint of the lateral process with a long plantar ligament is seen. The upper surface of the calcaneus is protected by the posterior talus articular surface associated with the posterior calcaneus articular surface by the subtalar joint.
The ankle can move with eight tufts of muscle that allow the leg to flex and rotate in a circle. This allows a person to move in normal mode and maintain balance. The legs are not tucked in this, as safety is provided by the muscles.
If the muscles contract poorly and there is a disruption in their flexibility, the person loses the ability to move around uneven surfaces, legs can easily turn around, which increases the risk of an ankle injury.
Ankle muscles can be divided into several main groups:
- Flexors. These include the plantar, three-headed, posterior tibial muscles, as well as the flexor of the fingers.
- Extensible. These are the extensors of the fingers and the anterior tibial muscle.
- Resonators. They are responsible for rotational movements and include short and long peroneal muscles.
- Supinators. This group includes the extensor of the thumb and anterior fibular muscle.
Ligaments of the
Anatomy of the ligaments of the ankle is presented below.
They are responsible for the normal functioning and movement of the joint, and they also keep the bone elements in place. The most powerful is the deltoid ligament. It connects the ram, heel and navicular bone( foot) with the inner ankle.
Powerful formation is a ligamentous apparatus of interstitial syndesmosis.
The ankle joint bag is strengthened by three groups of strong ligaments. Collateral( lateral) subdivide into internal( medial) ligaments of the ankle joint and external( lateral).
The retention of the tibia provides the interosseous ligament, this is a kind of continuation of the interosseous membrane. It goes into the rear lower, which prevents too much rotation of the joint inside. Turning in the outward direction is prevented by the anterior inferior intercellular ligament. Its location is between the heel-peroneal ligament located on the surface of the tibia and the outer ankle. Excessive rotation of the foot outwards prevents the transverse ligament, which is located under the intercellular.
What else is included in the ankle joint structure?
It is the most durable and largest in the human body. This is due to the fact that the Achilles tendon allows a person to walk, which means that he takes on a great burden. On average, the strength of this tendon is determined by approximately 350 kg when trying to break it. At the same time, it has a rather big vulnerability due to the fact that it is not flexible. The functions performed by the Achilles tendon are:
- Walking directly.
- Depreciation on movement.
- Normal movement of the stop.
- Ability to run and jump.
Deforming and Achilles tendon injuries occur usually if a person wears uncomfortable shoes all the time. It is also possible to develop pathologies such as foot deformities or flat feet. The cause for rupture of the tendon may be severe hypothermia, mechanical trauma or wearing high-heeled shoes.
Nerves and vessels
The circulatory system plays an important role in the work of the ankle joint. It provides the tissue with the necessary nutrition. The ankle is supplied with blood by means of three large arteries, however, damage to the joint can lead to deformation of the vessels, which will cause insufficient inflow to the feet.
The ankle also contains nerves that provide sensitivity and normal functioning of the feet and muscles. If the nerve endings are damaged, muscle weakness, loss of sensation and numbness in the legs may develop.
Causes of ankle pain
When there is pain in the ankle, it becomes difficult for a person to move around. There is swelling of the ankles, as well as blueness of the skin. It is impossible to step fully on the foot, as the pain is amplified. The ankle, thus, loses the ability to hold the weight of a person.
Pain in case of an ankle injury can be given to the leg or knee area. Athletes are in a group at increased risk of developing an ankle pathology, because during training, the tension and load on the joint exceed the permissible standards. The lateral ligament of the ankle is damaged very often.
Soreness in this area indicates the presence of a serious disorder that requires qualified medical care. Pain syndrome occurs after getting injuries, sprains, dislocations or fractures. Also, this may indicate signs of damage to the joint cavity or cartilaginous tissue.
How many sprains ankle sprain heals? This is a common question.
Only the medical specialist can diagnose and diagnose the cause of the damage. As a rule, an examination is carried out and additional examinations such as ultrasound or radiographic examinations are prescribed. If necessary, blood tests can also be performed, as well as the extraction of articular fluid for histology.
Ankle pain most often occurs as a result of the development of the following diseases:
All of the above diseases are manifested by impaired motor activity and joint inflammation. The nature of pain is increasing and passing through some time. Gout causes severe swelling and intense pain.
The cause of pain in the ankle joint may also be a cyst or other malignancy of a benign or malignant nature. In this case, the pathology is palpable, the neoplasm begins to ache when pressed and felt during movement. If the pain is accompanied by swelling, you should immediately go to the doctor.
If the disease is started, complications, such as a complete loss of the ability to move the joint, can occur, as it builds up with bone tissue. At the same time, the inflammatory process can move further to neighboring joints and tissues, which will cause even more complications. How much does the sprain of the ankle joint heal? This requires an average of several days to a month and a half for healing, but the process can take up to six months, depending on the degree of severity.
Therapy for pain in the ankle region directly depends on the nature and severity of the disease. In the case of an inflammatory process or injury to the joint, unloading of the injured limb is provided. This will accelerate the recovery process and prevent further destruction of the joint tissues. In order to relieve inflammation and pain, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are usually prescribed, in some cases it may be corticosteroids.
In the rehabilitation period, the patient is shown therapeutic exercises, physiotherapy, mud therapy and other methods. Anesthetics are also prescribed in the form of ointments and gels. Sometimes the cause of the disease is an autoimmune disorder, as well as the accumulation of salts in the joint. In this case, long-term special treatment according to a certain scheme is required. Therapy is performed not symptomatically, but in order to eliminate the cause of the pathology.
Surgical intervention is indicated for the removal of cysts and tumors. In the course of its removal, new growths are removed and damaged tissues are restored. This measure is taken in case of neglected cases, when conservative therapy no longer has the necessary effect.
Treatment of stretching
The most common pathology of the ankle joint is the stretching of the deltoid ligament. In this case, experts recommend the following measures for the restoration of damaged tissues:
1. Reduction of the load and motor activity of the joint. This is done to prevent further damage to the joint.
2. Local cooling of the joint. Ice can reduce puffiness and create a numbness that will relieve soreness. Applying it to a damaged joint makes sense within the first 48 hours after getting injured. The cooling procedure should not exceed 20 minutes, otherwise there may be frostbite. Between two procedures should take a break in 1,5-2 hours. Ice can be wrapped in a towel.
3. Bandaging with elastic fabric. Special stretching bandages are used for this. The joint should be wound, not squashing. If numbness appears, it means that the bandage was not properly applied. This measure allows you to remove swelling and provide restriction of movement. Bandage of the leg is required during the day during walking, at night you do not need to leave a bandage.
4. The leg should be higher, in a raised position relative to the body. Lying on the couch, it can be provided by placing a pillow under the damaged limb. In the sitting position, the leg can be placed on a chair.
5. A damaged joint is strongly prohibited from overheating, especially in the first week. Trituration with alcohol and massage can worsen the condition. Therefore, you should avoid hot baths and saunas.
6. If the ankle function is not restored within 24 hours after the injury, and the joint condition worsens, you should consult your doctor. It is important to remove almost all the load from the sick leg while walking. To do this, you can lean on the entire foot, not on the heel.
The main consideration that helps to prevent damage to the deltoid and talon-fibular ligaments is considered to be a careful attitude to the ankle. Most pathologies develop in those who lead an inactive lifestyle or, on the contrary, too heavily loads the joints. Compliance with certain recommendations will avoid problems with ankle:
1. Balanced power supply and weight reduction to normal values. Excessive body weight increases the already significant load on the ankle.
2. Avoid the appearance of vitamin deficiency. This applies to nutrition, which should be correct, as well as taking special vitamin complexes.
3. To conduct preventive maintenance of disturbance of blood circulation. This requires regular performance of special exercises.
4. Refusal from bad habits like alcohol or smoking. Such habits adversely affect the human circulatory system.
5. If the work involves intensive work, then you should find time for a break and rest.
It is important to undergo a routine inspection. This will help to identify pathologies at the initial stage and avoid serious complications. Especially it concerns those who have a genetic predisposition to joint diseases. Any trauma is also an occasion for immediate medical attention, since even minor damage can lead to unpredictable consequences.
We examined the anatomy of the ligaments of the ankle joint.