Perforation of the intestine: symptoms, causes, methods of diagnosis and therapy
Perforation of the intestine - is a through violation of the walls of the thick or small intestine. As a result of such deformation, the organ content penetrates into the abdominal cavity. This phenomenon is called perforation. This disorder refers to surgical diseases.
Main causes of
Intestinal perforation is a disorder that does not occur by itself. There are a number of main reasons that contribute to the deformation of the small or large intestine. This list includes:
- Intestinal obstruction.
- Diverticulum colon gut.
- Stool stones.
- Necrosis of neoplasms formed on the colon.
- Ulcerative colitis.
- Gangrenous appendicitis, which provokes decay of the tissues of the appendix.
- Some infections, for example, tuberculosis or cytomegalovirus infection.
- Open and closed injuries.
These are the main factors that result in intestinal perforation. The causes of damage to the walls of the small or large intestine may be other. Tissue rupture often occurs as a result of getting into the gastrointestinal tract of acute homogeneous bodies: pins, needles, toothpicks, fish and meat bones.
Causes of perforation of the intestines in newborns
Intestinal perforation in some cases occurs in newborn infants. Perforation in infants can be caused by such processes as:
- Intrauterine hypoxia, which has a prolonged nature.
- Delay in the development of certain systems.
- Feeding a baby by the enteral method.
- Pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, for example, obstruction.
- Surgical intervention.
Punctures in newborn infants are isolated cases. Several ruptures are extremely rare. As the statistics show, in girls the perforation of the intestine is half as rare as in boys.
Intestinal perforation: symptoms of
Perforation has specific symptoms. The signs of a gap can not be absent. The main sign of perforation is strong pain in the abdominal region, which is accompanied by a strain of muscle tissue. With palpation, the feeling of discomfort increases. There are other signs of intestinal perforation:
- Frequent urge to defecate.
- Rapid pulse.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Increases body temperature to 39 ° C.
- Delayed or knocked down breathing. With a contraction of the diaphragm, painful sensations arise.
Breakthrough tissue in a colonoscopy
When examining the colon with a special probe, intestinal perforation may occur. This phenomenon can be explained as follows:
- Polyp removal - polyektamia. If the procedure is not followed carefully, a severe burn of the tissues may occur. It is in this place that a breakthrough is formed. In rare cases, damage to the intestinal wall occurs during surgery. The first signs of malaise manifest only after a few days.
- Excess insufflation - the introduction of a powdered drug in traumatizing tissues with a colonoscope. The rupture of the walls occurs during the operation. The first signs of intestinal perforation appear immediately. Punctures in this case can be large.
Diagnosis of perforation of the intestine
The localization of the abscess in intestinal perforation is determined by the method of palpation of the abdominal wall. The rupture is located in the place where the patient feels severe pain when touched. For diagnosis, not only finger examination, but also computer tomography, and radiography are usually used. In some cases, to establish the cause of discomfort in the abdomen is not so simple. Perforation is difficult to diagnose in patients:
- Postoperative surgical intervention associated with organ transplant.
- Taking chemotherapeutic drugs.
Abdominal pain in these patients is a frequent occurrence. To install an accurate diagnosis, a computer scan is required. Any intestinal perforation requires immediate surgical intervention. Exceptions are those cases where the contents of the small or large intestine penetrate the vagina and bladder. In this case, the patient can be observed the release of gases and stool during the process of urination.
Methods of treatment
Intestinal perforation is treated only by surgery. It is not recommended to start the process, as this can lead to serious consequences. The patient with obvious signs of perforation of the intestine immediately hospitalized and in the shortest time they perform surgery.
The actions of doctors should be quick, but neat. With such deformations of the intestinal tissues, one should not hesitate, since irreversible processes can begin in the patient's body.
Most often, patients undergo laparoscopy. In addition, concomitant therapy of anxiety symptoms, for example, heart failure, is conducted. Scheduled examination is allowed in cases where the contents of the intestine penetrated the bladder or vagina.
Experts do not recommend delaying with a visit to the doctor. Curing perforation of the intestine at home is impossible. It should be noted that perforation can lead to death of the patient. After a few hours after the opening of the hole in the large or small intestine begins gangrene - necrosis of organs and tissues.