Violation of speech
Violation of speech in children can be provoked by various factors. The most common of these are:
- difficulties in determining sounds by ear( with normal hearing function);
- damage to the vertex located on the vertex( during labor);
- defects in the structure of the organs of the speech apparatus( tongue, lips, hard or soft palate, teeth);
- poor mobility of the tongue and lips;
- inhibition in speech development on the background of mental underdevelopment;
is the wrong speech in the family.
With the most severe lesions, not only sound reproduction is disturbed, but also the ability to distinguish sounds by ear. In addition, there is a restriction of the child's active( used in speech) and passive( perceived) vocabulary. Violation of speech, which was not eliminated at an early age, entails problems in communicating with others. This, in turn, can lead to the emergence of complexities.
Violation of speech is classified by severity. Thus, it is possible to identify disorders that do not interfere with education in the general education school, and severe injuries requiring a special program.
With normal physical hearing, a child may develop a partial or total absence of speech( alalia).This condition is caused by the defeat or underdevelopment of brain areas. Sensory alalia is characterized by difficulty in understanding sounds. Thus the child hears that they say something, but what exactly - he does not understand. Motor alalia is a speech disorder due to the inability to master sounds, grammar, words.
Dysarthria( anarthria) is a pronunciation disorder against the background of lesions of the nervous system. In this state, speech is disturbed not only in the pronunciation of individual sounds. With dysarthria, reproduction becomes fuzzy, blurred. The child may have a quiet or, on the contrary, too sharp a voice. There is also a violation of the rhythm of breathing, loss of fluency of speech, and its rate is abnormally slowed or too accelerated. Often children with such a disease suffer from disorders of fine motor skills of the hand, physical awkwardness.
The erased forms of dysarthria do not distinguish sharply the child among peers. However, there are some features. Children with such a disease eat poorly and speak poorly. As a rule, they do not like meat, carrots, bread crusts, solid apples, as they have difficulty chewing. Often parents replace hard food with soft. However, this is more conducive to inhibition in the development of the articulatory apparatus.
Often, as a result of fright or on the background of a mental trauma, the child has stuttering. As a rule, it develops at the age from 2 to 5 years. At the same time, it is necessary to closely monitor the baby so as not to miss the possible appearance of the first signs of stammering: he suddenly falls silent and refuses to talk.
Individual speech disorders occur with adulthood. Some of them are eliminated with the help of a speech therapist in a kindergarten or when working with parents. However, serious disorders require prolonged treatment. It should be noted that the sooner parents turn to a specialist for help, the more effective will be the corrective work with the child.
Violation of speech in adults in almost all cases is associated with lesions of the nervous system of an organic nature. This is a fairly serious sign, the appearance of which can indicate the presence of a progressive pathological process. Speech disorders accompany such diseases as:
- tumors in the brain;
- multiple sclerosis;
- diabetes mellitus and others.
Therefore, one should be attentive to your children and take preventive measures on time.