"Metformin"( tablets): instructions for use, reviews, composition, benefits and harm to the body
Diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world. Every year the number of cases increases twice. Diabetes mellitus develops if there is a metabolic disorder in two types - if the body does not produce enough insulin( the first type) and if the insulin effect on the tissue( the second type) is disturbed. Diabetes of the second type occurs in 80-90 percent of all cases and is often complicated by such an unpleasant factor as obesity. In the treatment of the disease, the drug "Metformin" - tablets, which due to their properties have become very popular among those who want to lose weight, although not suffering from diabetes, has proved to be the best.
What is "Metformin"
"Metformin" and its analogues are hypoglycemic drugs prescribed for the treatment of diabetes - primarily of the second type, but in a number of cases the remedy is also taken in the first type. Since its introduction in 1957, Metformin has remained the leading drug in the treatment of diabetes, especially with complications such as obesity. Insulin promotes the deposition of fat, and "Metformin", reducing the content of insulin in the body, helps to get rid of it. It is due to this action, many use as tablets for weight loss "Metformin".
Composition of tablets "Metformin"
The composition of tablets includes the active ingredient metformin hydrochloride, which is produced from natural substances that are obtained from French lilac and goat rue. The auxiliaries of the preparation are talc, corn starch, magnesium stearate, titanium dioxide, as well as povidone K90, crospovidone and macrogol 6000.
First of all, "Metformin" is a tablet that is prescribed for type 2 diabetes mellitus withoutpropensity to ketoacidosis( a violation of carbohydrate metabolism due to lack of insulin).Especially shown drug for obesity patient, if diet therapy was ineffective. Also, with obesity, it can be prescribed in combination with insulin.
With such a diagnosis as diabetes, tablets "Metformin" are prescribed as an independent drug, and in combination with sugar-reducing drugs of other groups, if it is a question of the second type. At the first type it is prescribed as an addition to the basic insulin therapy.
Recent scientific studies have shown that "Metformin" is also successfully used in the treatment of oncologies associated with diabetes.
Metformin increases the sensitivity of cells to insulin. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels drop. The active substances of the drug activate the process of fat oxidation, do not allow digesting carbohydrates and thus prevent the accumulation of fats in the body.
Insulin starts the process of fat deposition, especially in problem areas( particularly on the stomach).Therefore, most diets are based on removing from the diet foods that increase the level of sugar. Also, metformin suppresses hunger caused by insulin.
Form release and dosage
"Metformin" - coated tablets, 500, 850 and 1000 mg, which are produced in blisters of 10 pieces, are white. Initiate therapy with 500-1000 mg per day, that is, 1-2 tablets. The dose, depending on the level of sugar in the blood, after the first 10-15 days of therapy can be gradually increased, but should not take more than 3000 mg per day. The maintenance dose is 1000-2000 mg( 3-4 tablets)."Metformin" instruction also does not recommend taking in dosage more than 1000 mg per day to elderly people.
Tablets are taken whole during or after a meal, washed down with water. Sometimes the question arises whether it is possible to divide the tablet( Metformin) in half. If we are talking about a dose of 500 mg, then it is not advisable to do this, since a smaller dose does not give the desired effect, besides it is not recommended to break the shell if it covers the tablet. If it is simply difficult to swallow because of the size, then it can be divided in two and taken in parts - but immediately, one part after another.
Since "Metformin" can give side effects in the gastrointestinal tract, the daily dose should be taken not at once, but in two to three receptions during the day, preferably while eating. If there are serious metabolic disorders, the dose should be reduced.
In case you need to take other drugs during the same period that you take Metformin( tablets), the instructions for use contain information about which medications you can combine with Metformin and which can not. It is also essential to consult with your doctor about the interaction of various drugs with Metformin.
In most cases, patients are interested in analogues of drugs - cheaper or more effective, including if they need tablets for diabetes."Metformin" has many analogues, which have a similar principle of action. First of all, it is Glukofazh and Siofor, some of the most popular alternatives to Metformin, as well as a number of other drugs that have the same active substance, due to which similar effects on the body and having the same indications for admission asMetformin tablets. Reviews about analogues can be read on the Internet, you can also compare instructions for use to draw conclusions and choose the optimal drug.
Analogues of Metformin are:
- "Metfogamma"( 500, 850, 1000);
- Nova Met;
- "Formetin" and some others.
- "Siofor"( 500, 850, 1000) - a German drug taken orally, has a hypoglycemic effect, an excellent substitute for insulin injections.
As for Glucophage, it is more expensive than Metformin, but when taken, patients are less likely to suffer from gastrointestinal disorders by 50 percent."Glucophage" is indicated for the second type of diabetes, it is used alone or in combination with other drugs. The variation of "Glucophage Long" has an extended validity period.
Basically, all these drugs have the same principle of impact on the body, since they have one active substance in their basis.
There are also biologically active additives that help to reduce blood glucose level:
- "Vijar"( also lowers cholesterol, activates the immune system, prevents the development of viral and bacterial infections);
- "Spirulina"( useful in the violation of metabolic processes, when combating obesity);
- "Glucoberry"( reduces the risk of complications of diabetes) and others.
However, dietary supplements can not be considered a full-fledged substitute for the drug, they can be used as an addition to the main treatment. In addition, before taking dietary supplements should consult with a doctor about this.
Metformin in diabetes mellitus
Metformin is one of the best antidiabetic drugs to date. It is very effective in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, it can be taken in combination with insulin, and the dose is selected depending on the amount of glucose in the blood.
In the treatment of diabetes, it suppresses glucogenesis, without affecting the level in the blood of insulin. It also increases blood circulation in the liver, so that glucose quickly turns into glycogen.
In the treatment of the second type of diabetes, "Metformin" can be prescribed for life. If it is prescribed in conjunction with other hypoglycemic agents, it is necessary to monitor the level of glucose in order to avoid hypoglycemia. With a separate intake of the drug, hypoglycemia does not develop.
In addition, it is used in the treatment of obese patients, which often accompanies diabetes, as it suppresses the appetite and reduces the absorption of glucose from food in the digestive tract.
In the first type, the drug is used as a supplement to insulin and other diabetic drugs, it can be taken separately only with type 2 diabetes. At the beginning of treatment "Metformin" the intake of other hypoglycemic drugs must be stopped.
Treatment with Metformin also has a beneficial effect in the presence of metabolic syndrome and lipid metabolism disorders.
Metabolic syndrome is a condition of the body in which a number of factors are combined: a carbohydrate metabolism is disrupted, the patient suffers from arterial hypertension, obesity, etc. The syndrome accompanies an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. This condition is based on insulin resistance, which, according to recent scientific studies, is closely related to diabetes and vascular damage.
As for lipid metabolism disorders, as a result of the conducted studies it was found out that the level of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL is reduced if you take tablets from Diabetes Metformin. The scientists' comments on this preparation also contain information about its effectiveness in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in violation of tolerance to carbohydrates.
"Metformin" for weight loss
Special properties of the drug and proven weight loss in diabetics led to the fact that "Metformin" has become popular among those who want to lose weight.
Despite the fact that the drug actually triggers processes that help burn excess fat and do not allow the formation of new fatty deposits, it should be used with caution in people who are not diabetic, and it is important to take into account a number of conditions.
First of all, it must be remembered that the fat itself does not burn fat, but only helps to consume its excesses in the event that it is accompanied by an active physical load and a special diet."Metformin" - tablets are not miraculous properties, but only an additional remedy. Even among doctors there is no unequivocal opinion about who can take Metformin tablets: the benefits and harm to the body from this drug should be evaluated in each case individually. Some doctors prescribe it precisely so that the patient quickly reduces weight, others consider it very harmful to the body. Therefore, when losing weight with the help of Metformin, a preliminary examination and specialist consultation are necessary to make the right decision.
Next, you need to consider a number of contraindications. For example, if you have diabetes of the first type or the second without developing insulin, you can appoint Metformin and solve weight loss issues only with the help of an endocrinologist.
In no case should you take the drug in case of renal, cardiac, pulmonary insufficiency, liver diseases, anemia.
The drug can not be used in cases when the body is weakened - after operations, injuries, serious illnesses, it should be avoided during acute infectious diseases.
It is forbidden to take "Metformin", if you adhere to a low-calorie diet.
The main processes that occur in the body against the background of Metformin therapy and promote weight loss are:
- rapid fat oxidation;
- reduced carbohydrate absorption;
- better absorption of glucose by muscle tissues;
- reduced hunger, resulting in a decrease in body weight.
With uncontrolled weight loss with this medication, side effects are frequent, especially if you took a larger dose than authorized by the instructions. In addition to significant problems with the gastrointestinal tract, you can become weak, drowsy, sluggish, lactic acidosis and other serious pathologies may develop.
It is also necessary to follow a diet when taking Metformin. With it, sweets, pasta, potatoes and spirits are excluded. Meals should be regular, you can not starve, but at the same time the nutritional value should not exceed 2500 calories per day. During this period you need to drink as much ordinary clean water.
Although Metformin eliminates the need for heavy exercise, this does not mean that any physical activity can be avoided. Morning exercises, active rest, non-exercise, combined with the drug will help get rid of excess fat much faster. Do not hope that "Metformin" will do everything for you without additional efforts on your part!
Do not take drugs and take it on the principle of "the more - the better": do not exceed the dosage if you take "Metformin"( tablets).The instructions for use give clear instructions about the maximum dose of the remedy, which, if not observed, can significantly damage the body. In addition, this drug can be taken no longer than three months, then it takes a break.
Now you can find many reviews of those who took tablets "Metformin" for weight loss. Reviews are quite diverse: someone got rid of excess fat quickly and for a long time, someone was prevented from doing this by bad habits or side effects. But in general, we can conclude that those who helped Metformin, took it under the supervision of a doctor, after the examinations, while respecting the necessary diet and not neglecting physical exercises.
Contraindications to Metformin
Before starting Metformin, regardless of whether you have diabetes or want to lose weight, you need to read the impressive list of contraindications and consult a doctor.
Contraindications include renal, cardiac, pulmonary insufficiency, severe liver and biliary tract pathologies;chronic pathology of respiratory organs. The drug can not be taken in the post-traumatic and postoperative periods, and after myocardial infarction during the rehabilitation period. Acceptance of Metformin is contraindicated in infectious and inflammatory processes and exacerbations of any chronic diseases, severe forms of anemia.
The drug is prohibited during pregnancy and lactation. When planning a pregnancy or approaching it against the background of taking Metformin from the drug, it is required to refuse and switch to insulin therapy. Breastfeeding, if there is a need for treatment with Metformin, needs to be canceled, because there is no data on the effect of the drug on breast milk, but even a small proportion of the medicine that has got into the milk is dangerous for the child, since among the contraindications is the age of 18years."Metformin" is not prescribed for children and adolescents under the age of 18 years.
Also, "Metformin" can not be taken with alcoholism and acute alcohol poisoning. In general, it is necessary to refuse from reception of alcohol and ethanol-containing medicines if you accept "Metformin".The fact is that the combination of ethanol and metformin, even in small doses provokes a rapid development of lactocytosis, up to a lethal outcome.
It is dangerous to take "Metformin" with constant low-calorie and "hungry" diets.
It should not be taken to people over 60 years of age if they are engaged in heavy physical labor, in order to avoid the development of lactic acidosis.
During treatment in patients, it is necessary to monitor kidney function, monitor plasma lactate levels, and serum creatinine.
Side effects of the drug
"Metformin" provokes a number of side effects. Therefore, when therapy is necessary to carefully monitor the state of your body and when you have any complaints immediately seek medical attention, especially if you take the drug not according to the indications and prescription of the doctor, but yourself.
First of all, the drug causes malfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. In this case, such unpleasant manifestations as:
- severe vomiting;
- resistant diarrhea;
- loss of appetite;
- appearance of metallic taste in mouth;
- appearance of abdominal pain.
The patient can also complain of a breathing disorder, tachycardia, rashes and scaling on the skin, often with an itch.
A rare but dangerous side effect is lactic acidosis. With lactic acidosis, lactic acid enters the bloodstream, the first symptoms of the disease are weakness, drowsiness, increased fatigue, increased nausea, vomiting.
With long-term use of the drug, liver function impairments are possible.
If you notice at least one of these symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor, informing him that you are taking Metformin tablets. Benefits and harm to the body in this case may be unequal, perhaps you should not take the drug and you need to find another option for treatment or weight loss.
Metformin is the most effective tablet for type 2 diabetes mellitus."Metformin" also helps to reduce weight, but it is worth remembering that this drug is not a panacea, it will not replace a low-carb diet and exercise. Therapy "Metformin" should be accompanied by monitoring the level of glucose in the blood and the rejection of bad habits, including food. If you want to lose weight with it, do not give up the gym, eat properly and do not forget that this is a serious medicine, it is designed to fight diabetes, so take it carefully and only after consulting a doctor.