What is a bruise? Main types, description and treatment
What is a bruise? This we will describe in this article. Also in it you will find information about what degrees are inherent in such a morbid condition.
What is a bruise? Under this notion, damage to tissues and small vessels, as well as their concussions, not accompanied by a breach of the integrity of the skin( with rare exceptions) should be considered.
The difficulty in classifying this condition is that absolutely any part of the body, including internal organs, can be affected by this type of injury.
Features of contusions
When talking about what a bruise is, it should be emphasized that it is often combined with such types of injuries as concussion, abrasion, ruptures of the internal organs, kneading, dislocations and fractures.
Contusions quite often lead to the formation of bruising and bruising. In this case, the coloring of the skin can serve as a certain parameter, on the basis of which it is easy to determine the limitation period of the resulting injury. In the first hours, the color of the site of the injury was reddish-purple. Further it becomes blue-purple, brown-green and with a yellowish tinge.
Types of contusion( degree)
Now you know what a bruise is. In modern medicine, such an injury is classified as follows:
- First degree. The skin is damaged to an insignificant degree. It can be seen small abrasions or scratches. This bruise is painless and independent 3-4 days later.
- Second degree. Trauma is accompanied by a rupture of the muscles, which leads to the formation of a hematoma and the onset of edema. In this case, the patient feels a sharp pain.
- Third degree. This type includes bone contusion, damage to tendons or muscles, as well as accompanying dislocations. Such blows represent a special danger if it involves injuries to the head, knee, joints or coccyx.
- Fourth degree. It is the most pronounced and is accompanied by changes that completely disrupt the normal functioning of human organs and systems. Its general condition can be critical.
Consequences of injury
In the event of injury, the consequences do not make you wait long:
- When the shin is injured, where the subcutaneous tissue and skin adhere to the bone, it is possible to necrotic the tissues and their subsequent rejection.
- When falling on a little protected soft tissue, not only do severe pains occur in the periosteum with its exfoliation, but also bone injuries such as fractures and cracks.
- An oblique stroke with respect to the surface of the skin can cause them to detach from the subcutaneous tissue.
- When a soft tissue hit, a hemorrhage builds up. Do not be surprised if you see that this area of the body is swollen. The bruise is very sore, and the place is soaked with blood, resulting in hemarthrosis.
- In case of a joint injury, its function is violated, pain is aggravated.
- When the head is struck, there may be a slight swelling. If the injury is accompanied by weakness, loss of consciousness, nausea and vomiting, then this indicates a concussion or even a bruise of the brain.
- If the neck is damaged, blood flow may be disturbed, which affects the blood supply to the brain.
- When the back or spine is bruised, the circulation of the spinal cord is impaired.
- In case of a chest injury, only local changes are noted, but with a strong impact, breathing may be disturbed or even stop.
- The abdominal contusion is accompanied by organ damage.
- In the place of impact, minor skin wounds and abrasions are formed, through which pathogens of various infections enter the body.
What if you get a bruise when you fall? Treatment for such trauma should be carried out necessarily.
First aid in case of injury is to inspect the damaged area. If the trauma occurred on the limb, then it is necessary to check its functions.
If symptoms of injury to the injured area are found, cold should be applied. This will cause a spasm of the vessels of the microcirculatory bed and contribute to stopping the internal hemorrhage.
Preparations for anesthesia with bruises should be avoided in order not to miss the deterioration of the patient's condition in case of complications. If there is a certainty that internal injuries are not injured as a result of the injury, then the victim can be given an anesthetic, but not "Aspirin".
In case of a severe head injury with loss of consciousness, as well as a bruise of the waist, chest or abdomen, in addition to applying a cold compress, the patient should be placed on a hard surface and immediately call an ambulance. In this case it is necessary to make sure that the bruised place is immobilized.
Contusions: treatment at home and in the hospital
Treatment of injuries in the hospital is required only when a significant force injury occurred. For example, bruises of the head, waist, abdomen and chest require immediate hospitalization of the patient in the surgical department. After the appropriate diagnostic manipulation, doctors decide on further treatment of the injury. In the most severe cases, a surgical operation is performed. Access to the damaged area is carried out by endoscopy or by an open method. At the same time, ruptures of parenchymal organs and large vessels are sutured, and the blood that has appeared is removed. After that, the wound is drained.
Simultaneously, the patient is prescribed painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs.
It should also be noted that with minor injuries they can be treated independently. Advocates of traditional medicine recommend adhering to the following recommendations:
- On the first day in the place of a bruise must apply cold lotions. For their preparation, you should use herbs such as St. John's wort, plantain, wormwood, yarrow and heather.
- Chilled tea brew is also used to treat bruises.
- Another effective remedy for a tumor is the water sponge. Pharmaceutical powder diluted with water, and then the resulting gruel lubricate the site of the injury, and on top covered with a cloth or a compress.
- To treat the injury in the joint area, you should do a light massage, using a drop of essential oil of fir, geranium or lemon.
- The bruised area can be slightly rubbed with a balm "Asterisk".
- From strong bruises of the extremities helps to get rid of such a simple folk remedy, like cottage cheese. The dairy product in a cold form is applied to the sore spot and held for about ¼ hour.
Using these recipes, you can get rid of the bruise and prevent its consequences in a short period of time.