Hyperplastic gastritis - what is it?
The term "hyperplastic gastritis" in medicine means a special lesion of the mucosa, expressed in its thickening, hypertrophy. It can eventually lead to the formation of polyps or cysts in the stomach. Often referred to as pathology is attributed to precancerous conditions. More details about it will be discussed later in the article.
Information on hyperplastic gastritis
Chronic hyperplastic gastritis is a lesion of the stomach, which is observed quite rarely. Under this definition, a disparate group of diseases based not on the inflammatory process but on the primary hyperplasia( expansion) of the gastric epithelium is suitable. Each of these pathologies is infrequent, on the whole they make up only 5% of all chronic diseases of the stomach.
By the way, the researchers noticed that the development of hyperplastic gastritis in children in some cases results in regression and full recovery of the mucous membrane, and in adults this is not observed, and the development of this disease leads to its atrophy.
Causes of the disease
Hyperplastic gastritis has not yet been studied enough. Several factors relate to the reasons for its development. The hereditary predisposition is considered to be the main one. But no less important are:
- disorders in the patient's diet;
- presence of chronic intoxication( for example, with alcoholism, smoking, drug addiction, etc.);
- disorders of metabolic processes in the body and hypovitaminosis.
Researchers attach great importance to the development of the described ailment of food allergies. Allergens that fall on the mucosa make it permeable and cause dysplasia( abnormal development) of the epithelium. As a result of all this, a significant loss of protein occurs, which, by the way, is also called as one of the characteristic signs of all types of hyperplastic gastritis.
Some researchers consider it also a manifestation of abnormalities of the stomach or a variant of the development of a benign tumor. And it should be noted that all these factors lead to the same result - increased multiplication of epithelial cells and its thickening.
Symptoms of the disease
At the beginning of the disease, patients often do not even suspect of having a pathology. Hyperplastic gastritis occurs only after significant changes in the mucosa. And the features of these manifestations are directly related to the form of the disease and the level of acidity.
The most common symptom is pain in the area of the stomach. Depending on the amount in the gastric juice of hydrochloric acid, there may be heartburn or belch with a rotten taste in the mouth. Some patients also complain of nausea, vomiting and flatulence.
Atrophic hyperplastic gastritis: what is it?
One of the varieties of hyperplastic gastritis is the form in which there is an appearance on the mucosa of joint areas with hyperplasia( proliferation) and cell atrophy. Such a phenomenon leads, as a rule, to the formation of cysts or polyps on the walls of the stomach and is considered the most dangerous, since it promotes the development of carcinoma.
As well as other varieties of gastritis, this one does not show any significant symptoms. Often it can be found only with special examinations.
But the pain in the stomach that comes immediately after eating, can be attributed to the manifestations of this pathology. It often has a fickle, paroxysmal nature, radiating into the lumbar region or between the scapulae. The emergence of these sensations is most often associated with the use of certain products.
Often the pain is accompanied by a lack of appetite, belching, increased salivation, nausea and fever. The latter may indicate a bleeding started in the stomach.
Development of erosive hyperplastic gastritis
In some cases, multiple erosions appear on the gastric mucosa, against the background of its reddening and inflammation. This condition is diagnosed as an erosive hyperplastic gastritis.
Its development can provoke as a direct contact of the mucosa with any aggressive environment( acid, alkali, chemicals, spoiled products, etc.), leading to burns, and chronic disorders of secretory processes.
Erosive gastritis is usually lingering and can lead to gastric bleeding, especially dangerous if they occur immediately over the entire surface of the stomach.
What is antral gastritis
There is still such a phenomenon as antral hyperplastic gastritis.
Antrum is the place where the stomach passes into the intestine, and its main physiological function is to reduce the level of acid in the food lump before it moves into the gut. But the drop in pH reduces the bactericidal properties that gastric juice possesses. And this, in turn, allows pathogenic bacteria to multiply, and therefore they most often choose the antral department.
How to diagnose the disease
In order to correctly diagnose, the patient is assigned a differentiated examination, because the signs of all forms of the described disease have similar manifestations with other pathologies of the abdominal cavity - ulcer, appendicitis, cholecystitis, etc.
Hyperplastic gastritis can be diagnosed only with the help ofFibrogastroduodenoscopy( FDS).To carry it out, a special probe with an optical system is inserted into the esophagus, stomach and duodenum of the patient, so that the image of the internal state of the gastrointestinal tract arrives on the monitor.
This procedure makes it possible not only to examine the gastric and intestinal mucosa, but also to take samples for histological or cytological examination.
To auxiliary methods of research carry the radiography of the stomach, intragastric pH-metry, biochemical blood test, etc. They help to identify complications, to supplement the diagnosis and make it more accurate.
Hyperplastic gastritis: treatment of
Treatment of hyperplastic gastritis depends on the symptomatic manifestations of
- If the patient has high acidity, he is prescribed antisecretory drugs( proton pump blockers) - "Omez", "Proxium", "Lansoprazole", etc.
- To get rid of heartburn, take enveloping agents( "Fosfalugel", "Maalox", "Rennie"", Etc.), which will help protect the mucosa from irritation and have an antibacterial effect.
- Mucosal atrophy requires replacement therapy with natural gastric juice.
- The presence of multiple erosions and bleeding caused by them requires the application of blood-stop preparations injected with injections - "Vikasol", "Etamsilat", etc.
- To facilitate digestion, when violating gastric secretion, enzyme preparations( Mezim, Pangrol, "Festal", etc.
Recommendations on nutrition
In addition, all patients are shown a diet rich in proteins and vitamins, it should be fractional( 5-6 times a day), and it excludes products that can have irritating effects(for example, when there is recurrent bleeding or atrophic hyperplastic gastritis is diagnosed), treatment requires surgical intervention, with the help of which polyps are removed or gastric resection is performed