Nutrients are biologically significant elements. Modern nutrients: description, species, role
Many of the women in their lives become real experts within the framework of a healthy diet. They learn by heart the calorie content of a particular product and can already determine the content of fats, proteins and carbohydrates in a particular dish by eye. However, the term nutrients is something that is not quite clear, like something related to nutrition, but rather abstract. Today we want to reveal this concept and once again raise the topic of rational nutrition. No, not a diet, namely a balanced diet that provides you with activity, vivacity and excellent health.
What is this
Nutrients are biologically significant elements that are necessary for every living organism. There are not so many, only five large groups. All of them are 100% irreplaceable. That is, the body does not know how to synthesize them independently. If there is a serious shortage of one or several groups, there is a bias in the metabolism, which is the soil for the development of serious diseases or minor deviations that will undermine your health and ultimately lead to illness. Nutrients are the whole range of nutrients. No product can fully provide the body with all the necessary substances for growth and development, and therefore every day we need a significant amount of them, as well as biologically active additives to food.
Five groups of nutrients
First of all, two large blocks should be distinguished. Nutrients are a common name, and they are divided into macro- and micronutrients. The first group includes substances that are vital for us in large quantities. This is our source of energy, a battery that supports all the biological processes that take place in the body. Of course, you already guessed what is at stake. These are proteins, fats and carbohydrates. The basis of the food pyramid and our life with you.
The second large block is micronutrients. What is so necessary for our body every day in microdoses? Of course, vitamins and minerals. They go to synthesize hormones and enzymes, as well as other substances, without which it is impossible to imagine normal growth and development.
Consider them in more detail
So, nutrients are the nutrients that enter our body with food. However, the classification does not end there. Each of the main groups includes dozens of different types of energy sources. Today we will only go over them superficially, so that you have a fairly full impression. First of all, proteins fall into the field of our attention. The most important elements, the basis of our entire body, the source of energy and the building material for the muscles. And in this block there are different types of nutrients. Proteins are fast and slow. Fast is the one in which the amino acids are in the most split state. The organism does not expend efforts for their assimilation, because their construction does not require additional splitting. Egg and milk proteins can be considered as an example. They are needed after training, sleep or a long break in food.
Slow protein is another species. Amino acids here are in bound form. Therefore, the protein breaks down for a long time and is slowly absorbed, while providing the body with building material for a long time. The best time to eat such a meal is dinner( if you do not eat after six in the evening) or the morning when you are going to go to work( especially if the busy schedule does not imply a break for meals).It can be cottage cheese and casein.
The second big group - fats
Now we are considering the basic nutrients that should be in your diet every day in sufficient quantities. The second group is fats. It is not necessary to deny them immediately, they are also necessary for the body, simply in reasonable quantities. However, it is necessary to clearly understand which fats are useful, and which are harmful. Saturated - this is butter, mayonnaise, sausage, fried foods. Their number in the diet should be minimal. To fully meet your needs, a piece of butter weighing 10 grams is enough. The second group is unsaturated fat. They are needed for normal functioning of the body every day. Sources are fish and avocado, sunflower and linseed oil, as well as nuts.
The most problematic category is carbohydrates
Today it really becomes a disease of all mankind. Carbohydrate food - buns and hamburgers, pizza, all kinds of pastries, cookies, cakes, everything you can quickly eat. These are sources of fast carbohydrates. Add potatoes and our habit is to eat everything with bread, and after a meal to drink tea, always with sugar or sweets, and you will understand how overloaded our diet is.
In fact, the need for nutrients is, first of all, the desire of our body for a harmonious diet. So, carbohydrates are simple and complex. The first often have a sweet taste. This is honey and jam, rolls, sweets. They quickly enter the bloodstream and raise the level of insulin. Complex carbohydrates differ from them with a high content of dietary fiber. That is, these carbohydrates are digested slowly, gradually giving up nutrients and maintaining satiety. These are cereals and legumes. The second group is preferred in the diet, while fast carbohydrates can be snacked after training. But before going to sleep, it's better to forget about them altogether.
Distribution of nutrients during the day
It should be noted that nutrient deficiency, as well as their overabundance, is very harmful to your body. Therefore, during the day, you must always observe a balance between their consumption. The very first meal should be about an hour after you woke up. Therefore, if you leave early for work, it is advisable to get up even earlier. Breakfast should be full, that is, combine fast and slow carbohydrates, as well as fast proteins. Dairy porridge and a roll will do. During the day, it is better to give preference to slow carbohydrates and proteins. Porridge with meat will be an excellent option for lunch. But for dinner completely exclude carbohydrates and choose a slow protein, for example skim curd or boiled chicken breast.
Ratio of basic nutrients for energy supply to normal vital activity
The content of nutrients is primarily a certain amount of energy that they give the body. Moreover, each of these groups carries their own energy load. However, the meaning is still one, the human body receives energy not from food itself, but from nutrients, of which it is composed. Then we must once again return to the definition. This will lead us to a simple, but such an important formula. Nutrient - this is any substance that must necessarily be part of the food consumed by a person to provide it with energy. In this case, the supply of food nutrients will be different. For example, one gram of protein or carbohydrate will give you 4 kcal. Thus one gram of fat will give 9 kcal. Based on this, we get the most important principle of healthy eating.
Compliance of energy consumption and energy consumption
This must be known and remembered. Daily consumption must necessarily correspond to spending. There are no products from which to gain weight, there are those that give a lot of energy, remaining unspent. But even this is not quite the right understanding. In fact, the body does not matter from what you got energy. Just 300 grams of the Napoleon cake will give you about 1800 kcal, that is, the daily energy norm. If you stop here and do not eat anything more during the day, you will not be overweight. In this case, apples, eaten in large quantities after dinner, will also cause excess weight, but all because the energy was received more than wasted. This is called the energy balance. That is, it does not matter what you overeat. Whether it was fried meat or low-fat cottage cheese, if you consume more than you spend, you will have excess weight.
Additives biologically active
In the understanding of many, modern nutrients are not food products, but various supplements and dietary supplements, that is, additional sources of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and vitamins. In fact, to calculate the diet using this approach is much easier. To do this, you need a few portions of protein cocktail, a couple of spoons of any cold pressed vegetable oil, as well as whole grain bread as sources of fiber. Deficiency of vitamins can compensate vitamin-mineral complex. However, all this can only optimize the power system, but does not completely replace it. Therefore, contact a professional dietician, develop for yourself the most optimal nutrition system, but it must include natural products, otherwise you are guaranteed various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as other organs and systems. Do not forget that the overabundance of one group of nutrients or the deficit of another is equally harmful, so try to stick to the golden mean.
Nutrients of food are natural macro- and microelements, real bricks for our body, as well as energy sources. We all know how important it is to fuel an aircraft or a car with suitable fuel, so, in the case of our body, everything happens in exactly the same way. Therefore, on your table every day should be meat and fish, cottage cheese and yogurt, vegetables and fruits, whole grain bread and cereals. If you do not eat fried foods and sweets that are full of calories and fats, then the daily norm( 2300 kcal) allows you to include a large number of dishes in the diet, so you do not have to experience hunger. At the same time, weight will be normal, but well-being.