Ketonuria is the presence in the urine of ketone bodies, namely acetone. Causes, symptoms and treatment of ketonuria

In some cases, the analysis shows an elevated ketone body content in the urine. What does it mean?

The human body constantly synthesizes or decomposes any products of vital activity. In the liver, glucose is synthesized from the split fat. Wastes of this synthesis are ketones. They have an acid reaction. Usually the amount of ketones is small and the body quickly removes them with urine.

But sometimes fats split very quickly. The liver is overloaded, the level of ketone bodies in urine sharply increases. What does this mean for the human body and is it dangerous? Ketonuria is

Ketone bodies

These are intermediate decay products that are formed when the liver is working. Usually the metabolism exposes ketone bodies to further cleavage.

Glucose reserves in the body are in the fat deposits, therefore ketonuria is a strong lack of carbohydrates. Ketone bodies are an excellent energy supplier. In this, even fatty acids lag behind them. Therefore, when the brain or heart lacks phosphoric acids, the body imme

diately produces ketone bodies at an accelerated rate.

What causes

Ketonuria is the content of urine in ketones above normal.

In a healthy human body, metabolism is well balanced. What can cause ketonuria? ketone body in urine which means

  • Prevalence in the diet of protein and fats. Due to a decrease in carbohydrate nutrition, cells lack nutrition. Ketonuria develops against this background. This is the body's response to the imbalance of the diet.
  • Diets and starvation can provoke the appearance of ketone bodies in the urine. Errors in the selection of diets lead to a rapid breakdown of fats, while the number of enzymes increases. Ketonuria is the appearance of acetone in the blood. Usually, if a person starves more than six days, the content of ketone bodies in the body increases above normal.
  • Anesthesia for the surgical procedure.
  • Diabetes mellitus. In this case, ketonuria manifests itself from time to time. By themselves, ketone bodies are not the cause of the disease. When diabetes is prescribed an additional course of carbohydrates and insulin.
  • Dehydration. It occurs when the body is overheated or is a complication of diabetes mellitus.
  • Liver disease or severe infectious diseases( eg, dysentery).
  • Development of tumors in the digestive tract.
  • Pancreatic disorders.
  • Poisoning with alcohol or chemical compounds such as phosphorus, lead.
  • Damage to the central nervous system, nervous excitement.

Remember that the smell of acetone when breathing or urinating is a signal to consult a doctor. And also an occasion for changing the lifestyle and the balance of nutrition.

Attention to children

The clinic is often consulted if the child has vomiting, the smell of acetone. Or such a smell appeared in urine. And although it is a sign of ketonuria, it is not necessarily a symptom of a serious illness.

Ketonuria in children causes

Often, everything is explained by an imperfect metabolic system. The cause of ketonuria in children is the condition in which a significant amount of energy is expended. It manifests itself usually with:

  • emotional turmoil;
  • increased physical exertion;
  • unbalanced diet;
  • cold;

The fact is that the child's body does not have large glycogen stores, so active fat splitting occurs and signs of ketonuria are observed.


For nine months of pregnancy, women often have to take urine tests. This is necessary in order not to miss the slightest deviation from the norm in the body for the entire period of gestation. After all, all organs have a heavy load. What does it matter that ketone bodies are found in the urine?

Usually their small content is the norm. The simplest analysis will be the passage of the rapid test. It is necessary to lower the test strip in the urine.

Normal in pregnancy is considered a negative test or the amount of ketones is minimal. If the test value is between 15 and 160 mg / dl, this is cause for concern.

In pregnancy, ketonuria is an alarming symptom. It appears in the early toxicosis. Poisoning the body, and hence the fetus with acetone, complicates the course of pregnancy.

Ketonuria in pregnancy

If a pregnant woman shows a serious hormonal failure, she falls into a risk group.

The increase in the level of ketones in the urine of a newborn is due to lack of feeding or nutritional deficiencies.

Symptoms of ketonuria

If the body has significantly increased the level of ketones, then ketonuria will manifest:

  • exhausting drowsiness;
  • smells of acetone from the mouth;
  • with acetone smell of urine;
  • analysis will show a high level of leukocytes in the blood;
  • with a biochemical blood test will show a low glucose content;

If ketonuria provoked a jump in the blood of acetone, then an acetonemic crisis may occur.

A significant increase in acidity in cells can seriously damage internal organs. In this case, a protective reaction is triggered - vomiting.

Symptoms of ketonuria in children:

  • complaints of abdominal pain;
  • complaints of headache;
  • the child is tired, sluggish;
  • complaints about nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • by raising the temperature to 39 ° C;
  • refusal to eat;
  • smells of acetone;
  • increased liver;

Can I detect ketonuria?

To detect the increase in the level of ketone bodies in the body can only chemical analysis. In the laboratory, the norm of the ketone bodies contained in it will be immediately established.

In modern medicine, ketonuria is detected by:

  • Lange assay;
  • trial of Legal;
  • test of Lestrade;
  • modified sample Rotary;
  • express tests;Ketonuria Causes

Express tests, of course, the most common. Their action is based on a chemical reaction, the result of which is visible almost immediately. Just put the test strip in the urine or drop it on the test tablet. In the case of a positive reaction, the tests will turn purple. The brightness of the color allows judging by a special color scale on how much the norm of ketone bodies is exceeded.

International Classification of Diseases

The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems( ICD) is the reference book for the purposes of comparing materials at the international level. With its help, various methodological approaches are combined. Accumulation of statistics on diseases and their classification is in progress. Every ten years, the IBC is revising the commission of the World Health Organization. In order to classify and analyze the entire mass of accumulated results from the point of view of statistics, it is translated into alphabetic and numerical codes. In this work, the developed ICD is used. Today it corresponds to ICD-10.It contains 22 classes( sections).

According to the ICD reference, ketonuria has the code R82.4.

Prevention and diet for ketonuria

For prophylaxis of ketonuria, it is necessary: ​​

  • to eat properly;
  • to lead a healthy lifestyle:

- as much as possible to be in the open air;

- moderate exercise;

- do not run chronic diseases.

Ketonuria how to treat

With such a chronic illness as diabetes, systematically consult a doctor. From time to time you need to pass an express test.

A positive reaction indicates a pathology in the body. Pay attention to the signal! Immediate treatment in the clinic will quickly return the body to normal. Without retreating from the diet prescribed by the doctor, you can speed up recovery.

Principles of the diet for ketonuria:

  • not to eat foods that contain many proteins and fats;
  • regular consumption of carbohydrates;
  • drink more water and solutions of soda( with diabetes - insulin).

The menu should include: boiled beef and rabbit, a variety of vegetable soups, low-fat fish. Porridge without oil, vegetables and fruits are good. It is recommended to drink more juices, fruit drinks, compotes.

Delete from the menu:

  • fatty meat;
  • spicy seasonings;
  • is sweet;
  • citrus;
  • bananas;
  • mushrooms;
  • fast food.

Focus on the treatment of

Ketonuria should not be treated as a separate disease. It is only a consequence. It is necessary to exclude the reasons that caused it. First, it is absolutely necessary to be fully surveyed. The accuracy of the diagnosis and the establishment of the cause that caused ketonuria, guarantee successful treatment.

Doctors give some advice:

  • If you are overweight, it's worth it from time to time to arrange unloading days.
  • If the analysis reveals an increase in ketones in the urine, buy tests to use them at home.

Diet for ketonuria

  • Urine for analysis should be collected no more than four hours before delivery.
  • The child can be given an alkaline drink every 10-15 minutes in small portions. Clean the GIT will help activated charcoal, enterosgel.
  • With the approaching vomiting, it is useful to take a drink fractional. Call for an ambulance.

How to treat ketonuria, there are tips in folk medicine.

  1. With frequent vomiting, drink mineral water, compote from dried fruits, glucose solution. One tablespoon in ten minutes.
  2. At home, put an enema. First, water at room temperature, later - warm, which added a teaspoon of soda.
  3. Take a drink: in 1 liter of water, dissolve 2 tablespoons.honey, pour in the juice of one lemon. Drink 1 tbsp each.every 15 minutes.
  4. Soda solution recipe: in 1 ml of water, dissolve 1 teaspoon of soda. Drink 1 tsp.every 10 minutes.
  5. Take decoction of soothing herbs.
  6. To accelerate the removal of toxins from the body, eat little. Better to eat only biscuits.

Treatment depends on the individual characteristics of the body. It must be strictly controlled by the attending physician.