Immediate conditions in children: trauma, burns, poisoning. Urgent care
The child's organism differs significantly from the adult by its functioning and imperfection. This is what determines his high vulnerability and susceptibility to the influence of various negative factors. Compared with adults, urgent conditions in children are much more common. The positive outcome depends entirely on the correctness of the first medical aid. In the article we will get acquainted with the most frequent emergency situations and the first aid that the victim needs.
The concept of emergency conditions
Immediate conditions in children are the presence of symptoms and signs that threaten the life of a small patient. In such a situation, immediate emergency care is required, the life of a small man will depend on its delivery.
The basis for helping children is the main principle: "Do no harm."Quite often, parents( and this can happen to doctors) make the mistake in choosing the dosage of the medicine, incorrectly combine medicines, give medicines, which then, in a hospital, make it difficult to make the right diagnosis.
If emergency conditions occur in children, they need immediate medical attention, because delay can be very expensive.
Peculiarities of the organism predisposing to the development of emergency conditions
Young children have some peculiarities in the structure and development of organ systems that contribute to the situation that situations that require urgent medical care occur much more often.
- If we consider the cardiovascular system, we can distinguish the following features:
- In infants the first two months of life are dominated by the right heart, and the left has a small extensibility, which can contribute to the development of left ventricular failure.
- The duration of systole is large, which predisposes to heart failure.
- Uneven maturation of the conduction system and cardiac muscle, imperfection of reflex regulation of the heart can lead to frequent disturbances of the heart rhythm.
- Vessels have a well developed muscle layer in a small circle of circulation, which can lead to the development of pulmonary hypertension.
- The high permeability of pulmonary capillaries predisposes to pulmonary edema, given that the pressure in the left atrium is 2 times less than in adults.
- Even with insignificant decreases in the volume of circulating blood, clinical symptoms of blood loss develop.
- The brain is abundantly supplied with blood, the blood-brain barrier has a high permeability, which facilitates the passage of toxins, poisons and viruses that circulate in the blood. And this can lead to brain damage.
- Obstructed outflow of venous blood creates all conditions for cerebral edema and accumulation of fluid that presses on the brain tissue.
2. The respiratory system is also not perfect:
- Narrow larynx, trachea and bronchi, weak development of elastic and muscle fibers in them, softness of the cartilaginous tissue, abundant supply of blood create the prerequisites for the development of inflammatory respiratory diseases.
- Compensatory possibilities are sharply limited due to an increase in the respiratory volume and respiratory rate due to the special structure of the thorax.
- Barrier functions of bronchial epithelial tissue are poorly developed, cough reflex is weak, which limits the protective function when the infection enters the child's body.
3. The nervous system has the following features:
- The cerebral cortex is still slightly differentiated, it weakly affects the underlying parts of the nervous system, but the ascending reticular formation has a predominant tone, which contributes to diffuse cerebral reactions.
- High activity of the hippocampus predisposes to the appearance of seizures.
- The tone of the sympathetic nervous system predominates, so babies often have peripheral circulatory disorders, are prone to hyperthermia, rapid breathing.
All these features contribute to the fact that urgent conditions in children are more common than in adults, and require serious medical attention. Symptoms requiring immediate medical attention
Most parents are very careful about the health of their little children and with the slightest deviation breaks the phones of pediatricians, but more often the experiences of moms and dads are in vain. Nevertheless, any doctor can name a few symptoms that indicate that the child urgently needs medical care. These include:
- High indicators on the thermometer, for example, the temperature is about 39 degrees, especially when after taking antipyretics it decreases for a short time and again creeps up.
- Vomiting in any situation requires replenishment of fluid, and if it is almost non-stop, then urgent help is needed. This can result in dehydration of the body, which is dangerous for the child. In addition, vomiting can be a sign of more serious pathologies, for example, appendicitis, infection of excretory system, intestinal obstruction.
- Dehydration may occur as a result of severe diarrhea, which is difficult to stop. In such situations, again, urgent medical help is required.
- Problems with breathing. They can appear as a result of getting into the respiratory tract of a foreign body or the development of asthma.
- If clots or blood veins appear in the feces of the baby, this may indicate internal hemorrhage, and in which area - only the doctor can determine.
- Convulsions, sudden aggressiveness or drowsiness may indicate the presence of a traumatic brain injury. Urgent assistance in such situations should be implemented immediately.
- The use of tablets, various medications that the child finds in the home medicine chest. Overdosing can occur quickly enough, and it is not known how the baby's body reacts to the remedy, so you need to urgently call a doctor.
Many mothers already feel intuitively when their baby is really in danger, and when you can not panic, you can take the necessary measures yourself.
First aid for craniocerebral injury
Young children fall often enough, but not every fall can result in a serious head injury. If the child fell from a small height, for example, from the sofa, then most likely, it will not come to this, but the fall from the table is already threatening with serious consequences.
Often parents themselves underestimate the abilities of their child and leave the crumbs unattended on the changing table. Sometimes it takes only a few minutes and the baby is on the floor. If a child bumps his head, it is necessary to show it to the doctor. The main symptoms that indicate a traumatic brain injury are:
- loss of consciousness;
- obvious traces of damage to the head;
- nausea and vomiting.
After falling, intracranial hematoma can be formed, the presence of which is indicated by the following symptoms:
- the nasolabial fold is smoothed;
- tendon reflexes decrease;
- language deviation.
Emergency assistance in this case must be carried out urgently, otherwise everything can end badly. It consists in the following:
- Lay the victim and provide him peace.
- If breathing is impaired, insert the airway.
- If there is no consciousness, the child must be placed on the right side.
- Suck the mucus from the mouth with a pear.
- If there is a strong overexcitation, you can enter a 0.25% solution of droperidol in the calculation of 0.2 ml per kilogram of weight.
After first aid, the hospitalization of children must be carried out without fail. If a child falls, do not hope that everything goes by itself, it is better to insure yourself once again.
When falling quite often a baby can stumble upon a sharp object and injure the eye. Eye injury can be through, when all layers are damaged, and blind. To clarify the extent of damage and provide the necessary assistance, the child must be urgently sent to a specialized institution.
A small eye injury may occur after foreign objects have been dropped, which the oculist must also remove. The child can get and burns the eyes, this often happens in fires or after careless handling of chemicals. As an emergency, you should rinse your eyes under the stream of water and drip "Albucid", and then show the child to the doctor.
Rendering assistance is necessary, because untimely treatment or even ignoring the problem can result in blindness.
Help with poisoning
Babies - lovers constantly something to pull into the mouth, so poisoning happens often. The reason may be:
- Various chemicals that the baby finds carelessly thrown in the kitchen or in the bathroom.
- Tablets from a home medicine chest.
- Mushrooms and much more.
It often happens that parents do not know what their baby was poisoned, and he can not say yet. Assistance in emergency conditions of this kind should be as follows:
- If a toxic substance has got on the skin, it should be rinsed well under running water and greased with a greasy cream or ointment.
- In case of contact with eyes, rinse them, apply a sterile bandage and go to the doctor.
- If the poisoning has occurred with carbon monoxide, the affected person should be taken to fresh air. When breathing is stopped, make artificial respiration before the ambulance arrives.
- If a poisonous substance enters the interior, it is first necessary to provoke vomiting and rinse the stomach with a solution of potassium permanganate.
This should include pre-hospital care for emergency conditions in children, if a poisoning occurred. All other procedures are performed by a doctor in the hospital, where you need to deliver the baby.
If you visit burns offices or centers, you can simply be horrified by the number of children who are there. Quite often, the parents themselves are the perpetrators of all this. Carefully left on the edge of the table is a pot of boiling water, matches in the reach of the child - and now it's all very easy to give. The kid should be pulled enough for the edge of the container, and hot water pours it from head to foot. Careless mother can only grab the head and rush to the hospital with the child.
After receiving the burn, you must immediately give the child first aid. PMP for burns is as follows:
- On the injured surface it is necessary to apply a bandage with furatsilinom or novocaine.
- Inside you can give an anesthetic drug.
- If there is any anti-burn spray or gel at home, for example, "Panthenol", "Livian", then you need to treat the wound.
If the child burns a large area of the body, then PMP for burns should be provided only in the hospital.
Injuries to children
Most of the children are very curious because of their age, they are constantly exploring something, practically do not sit in one place. Get various injuries - for them a trifling matter. Among the injuries there are those that parents can cope with, and sometimes, not without emergency:
- Cuts. Children like to fiddle with sharp objects, especially boys, so getting such an injury is easy enough. If the child is cut, the wound must first be rinsed thoroughly and treated with a septic agent, for example hydrogen peroxide. Then apply a sterile bandage. If the injury is so great that severe bleeding begins, then first aid will depend on which vessel is damaged. Arterial bleeding requires the application of a tourniquet, and with a venous sufficiently strong pressing bandage.
- Children often get dislocated and stretched, which is not surprising, considering their mobility. It is necessary to attach ice to the injured place, apply a bandage and go to a traumatologist to determine the type of injury. The main thing is to find a turning point in time to provide effective assistance.
- Fracture. Such traumas in children occur less often, since in their bones the content of organic substances is greater than that of mineral substances, so the bones of children are flexible. But still, there are such damages. If there is a suspicion of a fracture, it is necessary to immobilize the injured limb in order to prevent the bone from moving, and go to the hospital if there is such a possibility. You can call an ambulance. In the hospital, a traumatologist will take a snapshot to determine the location of the fracture and impose a cast.
Diagnosis of emergency conditions in children should be at least a bit, but familiar to parents so that they can in time to seek the necessary medical care. For example, if the skin becomes too pale, cold sweat appears, dizziness appears, this may be a symptom of an impending fainting.
The child can lose consciousness for various reasons:
- is a strong bol;
- body exhaustion;
- thermal or sunstroke, which especially becomes topical in the hot season;
- if you sharply change the horizontal position to vertical;
- if a child bumps his head, it can also trigger a loss of consciousness.
Parents should know what kind of first aid should be given to a child in such situations:
- Sprinkle face with cold water.
- You can bring a fleece moistened with ammonia to your nose.
- Wipe the whiskey with ammonia.
- Necessarily the head should lie on its side, because often in such a state there is vomiting.
- In the absence of liquid ammonia, you can grate your ears, fingertips on your hands, the tip of your nose.
- After the child regains consciousness, give him a little rest and give him a warm tea.
If an unconscious condition occurs due to an unknown cause, it is necessary to visit a doctor urgently so as not to miss the development of a serious pathology.
From all that has been said, we can conclude that, in comparison with adults, there are more frequent emergencies in children. First aid for babies should be provided immediately to prevent the development of serious complications. First of all, one must be attentive to parents, for it is a sin to conceal, most often the kids become victims of careless and irresponsible behavior of adults.
Take care of your children, all dangerous items should be removed from their reach, then you do not have to call an ambulance to save the baby.