What is adjuvant therapy?
Adjuvant therapy for malignant tumors is a modern way of healing neoplasms using high technologies. Some drugs and substances are injected into the human body - antineoplastic agents, which have an antitumor effect.
Chemotherapeutic drugs are detrimental to the rapidly developing cells of malignant tumors. For healthy, reproducing cells of the human body, medicines produce less damaging effects.
Differences from pharmacotherapy
The principal difference is that in the treatment with therapeutic agents there are two participants in the process - a medicine and a human body that needs to be cured. Adjuvant therapy involves the treatment of a chemotherapeutic drug, an organism of a tumor carrier and a clone of malignant cells to be destroyed, counting the three sides of the conflict.
The complex relationship of the three components in the process of treatment is of great importance. When choosing the method of therapy, the doctor takes into account the state of the patient's body, age, degree of damage to internal organs, obtained for various reasons. The specialist pays attention to the biological characteristics of the tumor, its immune type, cytogenetics and kinetic movement in the area of metastasis.
Comparing the survey data, the oncologist decides on the ability to transfer the patient's medical procedure. Adjuvant chemotherapy-therapy is prescribed for patients who are able to fight the tumor with inoperable methods, or used as a post-operative additional method.
Tasks of prescribed treatment
Adjuvant therapy as a method of treatment completely destroys, kills a cancerous tumor or significantly inhibits the process of metastasizing a clone of aggressive cells, while producing less destructive effect on the human body.
When antitumor chemotherapy does not change the pathogenesis of malignant formation, for example, the differentiation of aggressive cells and their conversion back to normal does not occur. The usual therapeutic procedures cure known biochemical shifts and correct their course.
The development of the natural mechanism of sanogenesis is also not helped by adjuvant therapy. What does it mean? The natural system of protecting the body from the development of tumor cells is severely affected by chemotherapy, other human immune mechanisms are in decline. The action is explained by the rapid development of protective cells, which receive a harmful dose to a slightly lesser extent than malignant colonies.
Normal functioning of the body and improvement of its viability occur as a secondary manifestation after the destruction of the tumor or a significant slowing of its growth, if it had a destructive effect on one of the internal organs of a person.
The impact of chemotherapy on oncology and other diseases
Chemicals are used not only for the destruction of tumors, but also affect various types of infections, such as fungi, viruses, tuberculosis, parasitic infestations, helminths. Adjuvant parasitic therapy chooses an object of destruction: a microbe, alien to physiological and biochemical manifestations to the human body, standing on the lower ladder of evolutionary development.
Getting rid of such invasions is safe for people, as when parasite is destroyed, the features of the infectious agent metabolism are used, and the preparations do not influence the cells of the human body. An example is the blocking of the muscular tissue of the worm with anti-helminth drugs: the parasite does not attach to the intestinal wall, but exits with caloric masses. The drugs do not have an active effect on the muscles of the intestine.
With antineoplastic treatment with chemical preparations, aggressive tumor cells are selected as the object of exposure, which managed to escape from the immune control of the body. They become malignant, but are originally the own cells of the human body.
Complexities of antitumor therapy
It is fundamentally impossible to affect only malignant cells without affecting the rapidly dividing healthy body tissues. These include immune cells, skin epithelium, hair, nails. The mucous membrane of the stomach, intestines, lungs, trachea, bronchi, urinary system is affected by harmful action. In some cases, the dose is toxic, complications and side effects occur that result in a fatal outcome.
By the harmful effect on the body compared with anthelmintic drugs, adjuvant therapy is leading. What does this mean for a person? The reasons for the high toxicity of tumor chemotherapy do not allow the patient to enter a theoretically substantiated effective dose of drugs in his particular case. The number of chemotherapy sessions is questionable in some cases because of complications in the form of unacceptable toxicosis and side effects that result in a fatal outcome.
Given the approaching 100% lethal risk for oncological diseases, due to the lack of an alternative solution for chemical therapy, sessions are currently taking place with a risk of deterioration of the patient's health, aimed at its survival.
Many oncological patients know what such adjuvant radiation therapy is, but it is impossible to perform a surgical intervention or irradiation in some cases because of the neglect of the tumor and the appearance of abundantly developed metastases. In such cases, the final word remains exclusively for chemotherapy.
Indications and contraindications for the use of chemotherapy in breast cancer
Adjuvant therapy for breast cancer is the use of antitumor drugs and cytostatics. The patient is prescribed them in the form of a dropper, intravenous injections or tablets. Chemotherapy refers to systemic methods of treatment, since cytostatics, getting inside, stop the growth of cancer cells not only in the affected organ, but throughout the body.
The indication for chemistry is the appearance of malignant lesions in the thoracic region. The decision to choose women's treatment depends on many studies. Features of cancer cells that affect the choice of drugs are their stage of development, size and growth rate. The age, location of education and hormonal disorders play a role for the patient's body.
Adjuvant therapy for breast cancer has a number of contraindications:
- for hormone-dependent cancers of women after the onset of menopause;
- in girls of young age with hormone-dependent forms of tumors, if a low level of progesterone and estrogen is observed.
Conducting a course of treatment with chemical preparations
The course of treatment with drugs takes a huge place in the process of getting rid of a tumor. Depending on the complexity, a surgical operation or irradiation is prescribed. The cycles are adjuvant therapy. What it is? A cycle is the time of drug use. The number of cycles is determined by the state of the organism and other factors. The standard course contains 4 to 7 repetitions.
After surgical removal of the tumor, preventive treatment with chemical preparations is used to prevent the re-occurrence of malignant formation and to prevent relapses. To overestimate the value of antitumor therapy is difficult - its effectiveness is noted before and after surgery.
How does the chemotherapy chart of the breast look like? As a result of treatment, all types of cancer cells in the thoracic region are destroyed. The effect of prescribing several drugs should be strengthened, but the level of exposure is such that a person can transfer it without the threat of significant undermining of health. In addition, after studying the biological features of the tumor, the doctor prescribes such medicines to which the aggressive cells do not get used.
Alkalirujushchie preparations carry to the list of the medicines promoting a convalescence. By action on the body they resemble radiation. Medications destroy proteins that control the genes of cancer cells. A common chemical in this series is "Cyclophosphamide".
Antimetabolites are introduced into the genetic system of an aggressive cell. Their destructive effect begins in the process of cell division, which leads to its death. Representatives are gemzer and 5-fluorouracil. Thus, adjuvant therapy is used. In case of a pain syndrome prescribe painkillers "Seduxen", "Carbamazepine", "Phenytoin".
Antibiotics for the treatment of malignant tumors are not at all like standard therapeutic drugs. Their action is based on a complete slowdown in the multiplication of cells."Adriamycin" in combination with "Citoksan" give a positive effect.
Melanoma adjuvant therapy
Melanoma is a common oncological disease with a visible effect on the skin. Metastases from melanoma are detected by X-ray examination of MRI, PET, ultrasound and are detected by photoacoustics. Use for treatment various means of chemical therapy, immunotherapy, use interferon, various centers are treated with local perfusions.
Melanoma is difficult to treat, scientists are constantly working on the creation of new drugs. From time to time in the pharmaceutical industry there are encouraging results of research. Sometimes they show success in treatment, but it is limited. One of these newest drugs is the IL-2.With its help, a long and persistent remission is achieved, there is a rare occurrence of relapses.
Another effective radical remedy is OncoVEX GM-CSF - a drug of modern experimental medical methods. This drug is in the third phase of clinical trials.
Treatment of rectal cancer
In recent years, studies in the field of treatment of rectal cancer are pleased with effective discoveries. The number of failures in using the surgical method to remove the tumor in stages 2 and 3 leads to the fact that adjuvant therapy of colon cancer is increasingly being used. Studies show the effectiveness of a combination of radiation therapy using a chemical substance 5-Ftoruracil.
Application in the practice of the doctor of precise methods of tumor detection and investigation of its nature allows preoperative therapy to be performed without initial irradiation, when the formation of the first stage of the disease is detected. The possibility of chemical treatment significantly increased the number of cases of postoperative sphincter preservation and reduced complications.
To reduce the frequency of relapses and increase the number of cures without lethal outcomes, pre and postoperative chemotherapy is developed. In the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the lower rectum of the middle stage, a standard irradiation scheme in combination with 5-fluorouracil is used.
Postoperative therapy is more effective after applying the sonographic method, which allows to identify staging errors. The frequency of relapse with the use of postoperative therapy is reduced to 20-50% after surgery. The magnitude of the health damage is determined depending on the specific stage of the tumor.
Drug Therapy for sinusitis
Mild disease stages are treated without the use of antibiotics - adjuvant therapy is used in the treatment of sinusitis. The relief of the condition comes after the systematic use of topical drugs and physiotherapy. The effect of treatment is caused by vasoconstrictive drugs, antiseptic drugs, medicines to enhance immunity.
Vasoconstrictors have different mechanisms of action to eliminate symptoms of sinusitis, but all medications lead to effective treatment of the disease. Aerosol preparations have the best therapeutic effect, since the drug is more quickly distributed on the mucous membrane. Sinusitis with a purulent manifestation is treated with antiseptic drops, but it is rather an auxiliary to the main treatment.
In severe and complicated course of the disease, the use of antibiotics in tablets is required. Complication of acute period is treated by injection.
Adjuvant methods for the treatment of uterine fibroids
This type of formation is most often a benign neoplasm of the female internal genitalia. Some patients are unaware of the appearance of fibroids, since they do not pass the examination in time, and the disease is asymptomatic.
Frequent symptoms that cause the patient to go to see a doctor are uterine bleeding. Pain is observed in every fourth patient, quickly the tumor grows in the reproductive period in 60% of patients, before menopause - in 44% of women.
To treat a benign manifestation, adjuvant therapy of myoma is used. This is a difficult task and the positive effect largely depends on the experience, educational base and technical conditions of the doctor. The possibilities of conservative treatment are used as much as possible, but it is equally important to make a timely decision on the operative removal of fibroids.
The first method of drug therapy is to reduce the formation of ovarian hormones to the limit, thus reducing the level of local uterine hormone. The second method is to create a blockade of abnormal zones of proliferation. For this, small doses of progestins are introduced, which reduce hormones in the bloodstream and reduce the sensitivity of the tumor tissue to the action of estrogens.
In modern medicine for the treatment of fibroids using gestagens, antiestrogens, antigonadotropins, antigestagens. Therapy is carried out by hormonal and non-hormonal drugs. Conservative treatment includes antistress, immunocomproming, nootropic drugs, vitamins, antioxidants.
Periodontal treatment tools
Periodontitis occurs in some cases, as a transient inflammatory process in rhinitis, osteomyelitis, antritis or otitis media. This disease is manifested by inflammation of the root of the tooth and a number of hard tissues. Sometimes it is caused by a pulpitis of the tooth, a gum trauma. In addition to traditional mechanical treatment, adjuvant therapy of periodontitis is used.
The cause of diabetes is diabetes, improper replenishment of the body with vitamins and minerals, an allergic response to the use of certain medications. Untimely sanation also leads to illness, adjuvant therapy of periodontitis is used for treatment. What does it mean? The method is based on careful antiseptic treatment of the canal and the appointment of calcium in the interior. This method is considered effective if there is a possibility of long expectation of the result. In other cases, there is a danger of exacerbation of the disease.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the use of adjuvant therapy in the treatment of cancer is not the least. Therapy facilitates the preparatory stage of the operation, and after the removal of the malignant formation reduces the possibility of relapse and re-emergence of the tumor.