HCT in the blood test: the norm in children, in men, for women. What does HCT mean in a blood test?
Conducting a general blood test at the first referral of the patient to a doctor has long been the norm in diagnosing diseases. HCT is also often evaluated in a child's blood test. The data obtained in this case are subject to a comprehensive assessment, where each separate indicator is in itself not informative.
The hematocrit indicator only shows the volume of red blood cells. The informative value of HCT in the blood test can not be considered in isolation from the rest of the indicators. It should be supplemented with information on the amount, form and content of hemoglobin in erythrocytes. The value of the hematocrit number is important for the diagnosis of various anemias.
What is the hematocrit score?
A hematocrit, or hematocrit, is one of the indices calculated in an analytical blood test. Hematocrit is the ratio of erythrocytes to the total volume of blood in the body. Conventional designation in the form of HCT in a blood test.
The short name "hematocrit" originates from the name of the analyzer flask for the study. Another name that is suitable for hematocrit will be "density".In some sources, the indicator is defined as the ratio of cells to the total volume of blood.
Visually, this indicator can be determined by pouring a little blood into a test tube. When she settles, you can see two layers - a dark layer of settled cells and a light layer of blood plasma. The percentage of layers will be an approximate example of calculating the required number.
What does HCT mean in a blood test? This is the hematocrit indicator, which determines the level of red blood cells in the total volume, where they are 99%.
Calculation and recording of the hematocrit number
In the laboratory conditions, the ratio in percent of erythrocytes is calculated. The calculation is done manually or in a laboratory automatic analyzer. In some laboratories working on a foreign model, the HCT indicator in a blood test is measured as a liter in a liter.
For example, the same analysis in different mappings:
- accepted record: 35%;
- Western record: 0.35 l / l.
What if HCT in a blood test is lowered? Deviations from the norm indicate quantitative changes in the composition.
How correctly to pass the analysis on HCT?
In order for the analysis to show the correct hematocrit number, the patient should follow certain rules:
- exclude alcohol one day before blood donation;
- does not eat fatty, meaty or fried foods for 24 hours;
- to exclude smoking;
- on the day of analysis is not, water in small quantities is allowed;
- not to be nervous and avoid physical exertion;
- if you can not do without breakfast( disease, pregnancy), you can include unsweetened porridge on water or an apple, a weak tea without sugar.
The patient is warned about these rules 24 hours before the test.
When is the hematocrit test?
Hematocrit values are important for:
- anemia - with a general decrease in hemoglobin;
- polycythemia - excess levels of erythrocytes, the disease is typical for the elderly, rarely in adults and children;
- polyglobula - excessive amount of protein;
- a sharp loss of fluid in the body;
- various bleeding.
The determination of the hematocrit number will be necessary in controlling the treatment of various blood diseases and the general condition of the patient in transfusion or dialysis operations.
How is hematocrit analysis performed?
Blood is collected from the patient's finger, but it is possible to take the analysis from the vein. The blood is placed in a special hematocrit flask, a reagent is added to it, which will not allow it to fold.
The hematocrit is installed in a laboratory centrifuge for separation - separation of layers. Rapid rotation causes heavy red blood cells to settle down. The weight after treatment is divided into three layers:
- Lower - consists of red blood cells.
- Medium - from white blood cells and platelets.
- Upper - contains plasma.
The hematocrit indicator is defined as the percentage of layers. Now more and more widely for the implementation of research in laboratories are used automatic analyzers.
To decode and analyze HCT in a blood test in relation to the rest of the indices, only the physician should.
Hematocrit standards in children, men and women
Hematocrit fluctuation indicates the level of blood concentration( how much it is diluted).The number of hematocrit varies for men, women and children. So, what should be the value of HCT in the blood test? The norm in children of different ages is:
- 1-3 days - from 45 to 67%.
- 30 days - from 31 to 55% regardless of sex.
- 180 days - from 32.5 to 41% regardless of sex.
- 24 months - from 32.5 to 41% for boys.
- 24 months - from 31.5 to 41% for girls.
- 6 years - from 31 to 40.5% for boys.
- 6 years - from 27 to 40.5% for girls.
For men, HCT will differ in the blood test. The norm for men is:
- From 20 to 50 years - from 38 to 49%.
- From 50 to 65 years - from 37.5% to 49.5%.
For women, HCT is characteristic of the blood test. The norm for women is:
- From 20 to 50 years - from 33 to 45%.
- From 50 to 65 years - from 34 to 46%.
Reasons for increasing hematocrit
High hematocrit is observed in diseases and conditions of the body caused by changes in the quantity or quality of red blood cells:
- with a sharp loss of body fluid - dehydration;
- of primary erythremia;
- kidney pathologies;
- respiratory diseases;
- bone marrow disease;
- various burns;
- heart defects and disorders in the cardiovascular system;
- of intestinal obstruction;
- various blood diseases;
- abuse of diuretics.
A high number of indicators is observed with various kinds of hypoxia and is a protective reaction of the body - an increase in the number of red blood cells and an increase in hemoglobin ensures a normal supply of oxygen to all cells of the body.
Elevated hematocrit indicates either a sharp outflow of fluid from the body, or a pathological increase in the number of red blood cells. If the symptoms of kidney and blood disease are traced, elevated hematocrit can confirm leukemia or neoplasm in the kidneys.
An increase in the number of red blood cells is possible with increased bone marrow function - such a disease is called erythremia. The symptom of the disease is the red skin and palms. Hematocrit should necessarily be considered in conjunction with other indicators that characterize erythrocytes - ESR, color index of blood.
It is found in smokers, mountain dwellers, climbers, people with lung diseases.
Hematocrit values below the norm
A low hematocrit value is determined at a level below 20%.This decrease indicates the presence of anemia and other pathologies, in which the volume of fluid in the composition increases.
HCT blood tests are lowered under the following conditions:
- pregnancy - the total volume of plasma increases while maintaining the mass of erythrocytes;
- continuous blood donation;
- anemia - a decrease in the number of hematocrit is the main confirmation of the disease;
- various kinds of poisoning - pale toadstool, heavy metal salts;
- renal pathologies, increasing the volume of water with intravenous effects in their treatment;
- various lesions of the liver, causing pathological concentration of proteins in the body and retaining moisture;
- bleeding of a different nature - the volume of blood in the body was replenished with plasma, red blood cells have not yet recovered;
- severe infections - typhoid, malaria.
Despite the specific secondary importance of hematocrit, its abnormal abnormalities will be a signal for a more thorough examination of the patient.