What is varicose veins of the lower extremities?
Varicose veins of the lower extremities are many well-known diseases. In the warm season on the streets you can see people with altered and dilated vessels on their legs. And the disease tends to rejuvenate. Each of us is familiar with signs of venous insufficiency. Although few people know that varicose veins of the lower limbs can be veiled, externally showing little than showing. To its signs physicians include a feeling of fatigue after a long walk or standing, appearing in the evening. Many selflessly endure pain in the legs, and to the specialist only the appearance of a pronounced cosmetic defect in the form of enlarged and tuberous veins or trophic changes in the skin becomes necessary.
Varicose veins of the lower limbs - this is a common disease of the vascular system, and it occurs in almost all age groups. The main predisposing factor is the insufficiency or weakness of the valves of the venous wall. In addition, the appearance of the disease is affected by a long stay in an upright position, overweight, in women - pregnancy and as a consequence - stagnation of blood circulation in the pelvis, as well as congenital hypoplasia of the muscular wall of the veins. Varicose veins of the lower extremities may be the result of trauma or postthrombophlebitic syndrome.
The normal physiology of venous vessels is so arranged that when walking, muscle contraction occurs, and as a result, deep veins of the legs are squeezed, pushing the blood to the heart. If the valves of the connective veins are in a normal state, the flowing blood does not enter the surface vessels. All this provides a one-way flow of blood. When the muscles of the legs relax, the venous blood from the superficial veins enters the deep veins along the communicating vessels. When the valves are untenable, the blood flow becomes retrograde, leading to hypertension in this area. The veins under the pressure of the blood expand and deform. Stagnation of blood leads to excessive permeability of the vascular wall, there are edemas. If you consider a neglected stage of the disease, then on the skin integument signs of trophic and ulcer disturbance appear.
In the initial stage of the disease, you can see only the vascular sprouts on the legs or the altered veins. Further to these symptoms is a feeling of fatigue and aches in the legs, especially in the evening. There may also appear swelling on the feet and legs, which usually pass after rest. This is characteristic of this disease sign. Violations of trophic tissue, hyperpigmentation of the skin are noted in the advanced stage.
Varicose veins of the lower extremities are divided into the following stages:
Stage 1: in this stage the patient usually does not make any complaints, visually can note the altered veins;
Stage 2: characterized by the change and deformation of veins and complaints of heaviness and fatigue in the legs;
3 stage: it is characterized by swelling and excessive pigmentation of skin on the legs;
Stage 4: neglected period of the disease, in which there are disturbances of the trophic;
Diagnosis of varicose veins
Usually, the diagnosis of this disease is not difficult. To determine the patency of deep vessels, special functional tests are performed. This is necessary in order to correctly determine the tactics of treatment. Also conducted phlebography, which represents the study of veins by the introduction of contrast medium.
Treatment of varicose veins on the legs
The first two stages with success can be treated conservatively. Therapy is aimed at strengthening the muscular wall of the vessels and improving the blood flow in the capillaries. Appoint phlebotonics and disaggregants. The patient is recommended to wear elastic bandages in order to ensure passive decompression. After a long standing, it is advisable to lie with your legs raised up a little. The subsequent stages of the disease are treated surgically. Pathologically dilated veins are removed, and the subcutaneous large vein of the thigh is bandaged.