Amebiaz is what? Diagnosis, symptoms, treatment of amoebiasis
In this article we will consider a fairly common disease - amoebiasis. We will describe in detail the symptoms of this disease, the causes of its appearance, and also tell about the types of pathology. Preventive measures and treatment are two important issues, which are also considered in the article.
What is the disease?
Amoebiasis is the infection of the human body with parasites. To date, this disease is a problem for countries with a low standard of living. Most of the foci of the disease are found in tropical and subtropical countries. Amebiaz is a disease that is one of the most common in the world. Also, this ailment is one of the most common causes of death in developing countries. In the first place in terms of the number of deaths is malaria, followed by amoebiasis. This disease is a world medical and social problem of the backward countries.
Statistical data of
There are statistics of human infection of Entamoeba histolytica. It was revealed that about 480 million people are carriers of this disease. Death as a result of the progression of amoebiasis in the body occurs in about 100 thousand people. Deteriorating living standards, unsanitary conditions and the resettlement of people lead to the spread of disease. In our country, foci of infection with amebiasis are in the southern regions. But in recent years, the number of sick people has increased because of the migration of the southern population to northern latitudes. Also, many residents of our country began to travel to distant exotic countries, which also leads to the spread of amoebiasis. Infected people in our country became more. And we are talking about the inhabitants of such cities as Moscow and St. Petersburg. Therefore, amebiasis is a serious medical problem.
In the waste of human life there are such amoebas:
- Entamoeba histolytica. This amoeba can become a source of infection.
- Entamoeba dispar.
- Entamoeba hartmanni.
- Entamoeba coli.
- Endolimax nana.
- Lodamoeba butschlii.
- Blastocystis hominis.
Description of the disease
Amoebiasis is the defeat of the body by the simplest microorganisms, amoebas. Infection occurs when the cysts hit the upper part of the large intestine. Amoeba, which is the cause of the disease, is called Entamoeba histolytica. In the colon, ulcers are formed, and in other organs( for example, in the lungs, on the skin or in the liver) - abscesses.
Symptoms and signs
By what signs can you determine what a person has amebiasis? Symptoms of the disease may not appear immediately. With good resistance of the body, cysts and luminal forms can stay in the intestine for a long time without causing a disease. But if the unfavorable conditions( hot climate, poor protein-free diet, dysbacteriosis), cysts turn into luminary forms and are introduced into the tissue of the intestine( tissue form), which is accompanied by inflammation and ulceration( intestinal form), sometimes even provokes tissue necrosis. Sometimes the incubation period can last several months. But often there are cases when signs of amoebiasis are manifested as early as a week after infection of the body.
Disease( amebiasis) can be intestinal and extra-intestinal. Depending on the type of disease will differ and the symptoms.
Signs of intestinal form
Amoebiasis of the intestinal type, as the name implies, affects the intestine. How can you understand that a person has this particular ailment? By the following signs.
- When the intestinal form of the disease occurs disorder of the stool. No wonder the second name of the pathology is amoebic dysentery. Amebiaz in 10% of cases takes the form of fulminant dysentery, which is characterized by profuse diarrhea with impregnations of mucus and blood in the feces. For a day a person can experience up to 20 calls to empty the intestines.
- Cal is similar to burgundy jelly.
- Below the abdomen there are painful sensations, the intensity of which increases after going to the toilet. These pains have a cramping character.
- Also a person has abdominal cramps.
- The temperature rises. As a rule, a couple of degrees( no more).Sometimes it can be normal.
- It should be noted that the human body can be affected by a vermiform appendage - an amoebic tiflitis. In this situation, the diagnosis of amebiasis is difficult, since the patient shows signs of acute appendicitis. Namely: severe pain in the right side of the body under the rib, high temperature, abdominal tone, etc.
- Dehydration of the body.
- General state of weakness and drowsiness.
Acute amoebiasis lasts up to 6 weeks. Then comes a remission. This condition is normal and lasts from several weeks to several months.
Signs that the body is infected with extraintestinal amebiasis
It should be noted that extraintestinal amebiasis is characterized by the fact that harmful microorganisms affect other human organs.
Depending on the location of microorganisms, the pathology is divided into several types:
- Parasites can affect the outer shell of the heart.
- Liver amebiasis. This disease is acute. The body temperature rises sharply( up to 39 degrees and above).A person starts chills and sweating profusely. There are severe pains in the right hypochondrium, which are intensified during coughing, turning over and pressing on the liver area. The skin and whites of the eyes become yellow. It should be noted that if the abscess is located inside the liver, the above symptoms may be absent or not so severe.
- Amoebic pneumonia, or inflammation of the lungs. This lung damage is characterized by a high body temperature. The person also starts chills and pains in the chest area. This condition is accompanied by a cough and shortness of breath. When coughing sputum is excreted with impurities of blood.
- Encephalitis( inflammation of the brain).Symptoms of the disease can be different. They depend on the area of the brain damage. If the cerebellum is touched, then the coordination of movements is impaired. With inflammation of the brain in the frontal part will be observed cramps.
- Skin lesion with amoebiasis. In this case, various sores and erosions appear on the skin of a person. Usually, these defects are found on the abdomen, buttocks and in the perineum. Such a type of pathology affects people with weakened immunity.
If a person does not take any measures to treat this disease, it takes a chronic form and may take several years. Chronic amoebiasis is characterized by periods of exacerbation and recession.
There are cases when a person suffers from this ailment for decades. If the disease lasts for several years, you can not do without complications. These include the following conditions and pathologies:
- Drowsiness, lethargy, loss of strength and, as a consequence, a decrease in the working capacity of a person.
- Anemia( anemia).In the human body, the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin decreases.
- Weight loss, body exhaustion.
- Lack of vitamins.
Forms of amebiasis
Amoebiasis can occur in various forms, each of which is accompanied by certain symptoms. They differ in the degree of severity of the patient's condition and in the locus of localization of pathogenic microflora. Also important is the human immune system. Amoebiasis can occur without any symptoms or with their presence. The non-systematic course of the disease is characterized by the fact that the body does not give any signals that it is infected.
Manifest disease course with the presence of symptoms
As a rule, a person's body temperature rises, frequent diarrhea, pain in the abdomen. The manifestation of the disease can be classified into several categories:
- Amoebasis of the intestine. The name speaks for itself. That is, the causative agent of amoebiasis affects the intestine.
- Extraintestinal. With this variant of the disease other organs of the human body are affected.
- Skin amebiasis. The skin integument of a person is affected. People with a weakened immune system are usually affected. Also, dermal amebiasis can be caused by intestinal infection and is its complication.
Acute and chronic forms of pathology: signs
By how the disease progresses, it is divided into acute and chronic amoebiasis. At acute stage the patient feels very bad. Because the disease is rapidly progressing. Chronic stage of the disease can be divided into two types. The first type is characterized by continuous flow, and the second type is renewable. In the second form, the patient has periods of remission, when the state of the organism is normalized. But after a certain time, the ailment again takes a sharp form.
As for extraintestinal amebiasis, it is also classified into several types, varying in severity depending on which organ is affected by the pathogen. Allocate such pathologies:
- amoebic hepatitis;
- liver abscess;
- amoebiasis of the lungs, human brain or skin.
Amoebic dysentery is invasive( with the presence of certain semantics) and non-invasive, in other words - asymptomatic.
The latter type is characterized by a temporary presence in the body of microorganisms in an unfavorable environment. Non-invasive amoebiasis is characterized by the following signs:
- No symptoms suggestive of the presence of microorganisms in the body.
- Does not show any abnormalities endoscopy.
- Microorganisms are in an inactive phase. Therefore, this condition is characterized by such signs as the absence of trophozoite-hematophagous.
- Absence in the human blood of antibodies that could show during the study that the body is struggling with any foreign trace elements.
Disease How does a person become infected with this disease? The causative agent of amebiasis is the simplest amoeba called Entamoeba histolytica. She can be at rest and not present any danger. But also it can be in a vegetative form of development. If it enters the external environment, Entamoeba histolytica is at rest, which protects it from the effects of the environment and various unfavorable factors. The vegetative form of amoeba has its name - trophozoite. It develops from cysts. If trophozoite is formed outside the body, then it dies. The source of infection is an unhealthy person. When emptied, he releases infested feces. Further, another person may become infected. Of the feces are allocated infected cysts. They can get into water or soil. Also, the sources of infection may be vegetables or fruits. In general, those products that have not been subjected to any treatment. Therefore, before consuming any vegetables from the bed, remember that there is a possibility that they can be infected with cysts. In this regard, you should follow all the rules for processing products. The ways of transmission of this disease are a great many( even through sexual intercourse through anal sex).You can also get infected through food, household items and stuff.
What is the danger?
The danger of this disease is that in the intestine amoebae begin to multiply. After which numerous abscesses are formed. They also pass into the rectum, where they continue to parasitize. A large accumulation of amoebae can lead to rupture of the intestinal wall. They can also spread to other organs of the human body.
How is the diagnosis carried out? Possible variants of the
surveys We have already found out what amoebiasis is, the symptoms described. Now it's time to talk about the diagnosis of the disease.
It should be said that with any disruption of the body's work, it is recommended that you contact the doctor as soon as possible for examination and accurate diagnosis.
- Any visit to a doctor begins with a patient interview and recognition of his complaints. Therefore, before going to the doctor, you need to observe yourself and identify the symptoms present. To diagnose amoebiasis, the doctor will ask if the body temperature was rising, whether there is diarrhea. How often do emptying occur in a person, if blood clots are present in them. It is also necessary to find out whether a person has traveled abroad recently. Namely in countries with a low standard of living and located in a tropical or subtropical climate. This is an important point, since the pockets of high levels of amoebiasis are located in such countries.
- After the patient is interviewed, the doctor conducts an examination. Namely carries out palpation of the abdomen. He asks if pain is present. Also, the doctor examines the skin of a person for the presence of any erosion and ulcers.
- Then the delivery of tests is assigned. First of all, this is a blood test. As a rule, when infecting the human body with amoebas, the level of eosinophils increases. This indicator indicates that the body is fighting with any parasites. In addition, when an individual suffers from amebiasis, anemia develops. Reduces the number of red bodies. A biochemical blood test is also prescribed. It allows you to determine the amount of protein and other trace elements that can confirm or disprove the presence of protozoa in the human body.
- Stool analysis. This study may indicate the presence of live amoebas. Therefore, it is necessary to give the feces for analysis directly to the laboratory immediately after emptying.
- Intestinal examination with an endoscope. It allows to detect the presence of ulcers in the intestine and various defects. Also, this device allows you to take a mucosal intestinal fence and immediately send it to the laboratory for further investigation.
- The doctor also prescribes immunological diagnostics. It allows you to determine whether there is a protein in the body. If there is, the probability of the presence of amoebas increases.
- Molecular diagnostics of the disease. Research of other human organs in the presence of extraintestinal amoebiasis in the body. These examinations are done by means of ultrasound, X-ray and MRI.
- Consultation of a gastroenterologist.
There are two treatment options for this disease: conservative and surgical.
How to treat conservative amoebiasis? Drugs used for this therapy:
- Antiprotozoal medicines.
- Multivitamins, drugs designed to combat dehydration, pain medication and hepatoprotectors.
The surgical method of treatment is appointed after the conservative variant has not given positive results, and the disease continues to progress. Also, the operation is indicated in cases where there is a probability of rupture of the abscess.
Preventive measures for the prevention of amebiasis
In order to prevent this disease, it is first of all necessary to refuse the use of raw water. Because it can be infected. Only foods that have been heat treated should be eaten. After treatment, it is recommended to be under medical supervision for at least a year.
When planning a trip to countries with a tropical or subtropical climate, consult a doctor and find out what preventive measures should be taken in these countries. It is also possible to do the vaccination. It should be remembered that the vaccination of the body is carried out in advance, and not immediately before the trip. Especially high risk of infection in countries with a low standard of living.
A small conclusion
Now you know how the diagnosis of amoebiasis is performed, what this disease is. Symptoms and reasons for its occurrence, we also considered in detail. The methods of treatment of this disease are also described in the article. Although any disease is much easier to prevent than cure. After all, any therapy requires a lot of money and time. Therefore, in this article, we examined preventive measures that will help you to protect yourself and relatives from such a serious and dangerous disease as amebiasis. Be healthy!