Poliomyelitis - what is this disease? Causes, symptoms and treatment of poliomyelitis. Vaccination against poliomyelitis
Today, there are many different diseases that a person encounters extremely rarely. However, the state continues to vaccinate children. So, poliomyelitis: what kind of illness is it, what are its characteristics and do we need to vaccinate children against this disease today? Let's talk about this further.
Basic information about the disease
First you need to understand what exactly will be discussed. Poliomyelitis - what kind of illness is it? Initially, it should be noted that this is an infectious disease. It is caused by an intestinal virus that lives in the human body in the intestine or pharynx. But the danger is that it can affect the spinal cord and brain. It should also be noted that poliomyelitis in the people has a different name - children's dorsal paralysis. They are mostly sick at the age of several months and up to 6 years. Most often affected muscles of the child.
Poliomyelitis - what is this disease, how is it transmitted?
This is a very contagious disease. Methods of transmission:
- by air;
- through dirty hands;
- with water or food;
- together with feces( for example, when changing a diaper to a baby).
The virus enters the human body through the respiratory tract - nose or mouth, from where it moves straight to the small intestine. There it settles down during the incubation period. After this, the virus enters the bloodstream, where antibodies must be developed against it. In most cases, this is what happens. The child carries the disease, after which he develops lifelong persistent immunity to this problem.
It is important to note that the virus itself is very tenacious. In the external environment, it can persist for six months, perfectly tolerates both drying and freezing.
A little history of
This childhood disease( poliomyelitis) was considered a scourge of humanity until the middle of the last century. Especially often it struck Europeans, causing a huge number of child deaths. However, in the 1950s, scientists succeeded in inventing an effective vaccine, and poliomyelitis ceased to be a fatal disease. In the territory of the former Soviet Union, physicians fully coped with this problem before 1961.However, some time ago, in 2010, a new outbreak of poliomyelitis was recorded in Tajikistan, where nearly 700 people were sick at once. In this case 26 cases resulted in death. At the same time, the virus penetrated into the territory of Russia, where now and again affects unvaccinated children.
On the living and non-living virus
What list of diseases does poliomyelitis replenish? Infectious diseases that are characterized by formidable complications and can result in fatalities. That's why recently, doctors are strongly advised parents to vaccinate children. But even here there is one nuance. The virus of poliomyelitis, which penetrated the territory of the state, is considered "wild".And those vaccines that were used earlier, with this virus are ineffective.
Until 2014, a vaccine with non-living cell structures was used. It was called inactivated. Now scientists agreed that such prevention is ineffective. That is why it is now more relevant to use a "live" vaccine. In this case, pediatricians note that two vaccinations, which are done before the first year of life, will be performed as yet inactivated drug, as it was done before.
On the Danger of a "Living Vaccine"
The name "live vaccine" often frightens many parents. After all, no one wants to knowingly infect their child. Is it really dangerous in fact, as it might seem at first glance? Physicians argue that the risk of the disease after such a vaccination is completely absent. Moreover, it also protects against all complications, as the body becomes resistant to all strains of the virus. But still such a vaccine is not vaccinated children with HIV infection and those who are weakened from birth immunity.
About the curability of the disease
What else should you know about a disease like poliomyelitis? Each patient has his own story. It all depends on how it flowed.
- In most cases, which is more than 90%, poliomyelitis is asymptomatic. The child does not feel anything, his activity is at the usual level. At the same time, such children are the bearer of the disease.
- In about 5% of cases the baby can feel a slight malaise. It can be a muscle weakness, a breakdown.
- Approximately 1-2% of cases in children with poliomyelitis develops meningitis, which, incidentally, does not lead to paralysis.
- And in less than 1% of cases, babies experience paralysis.
Also, doctors say that after a paralysis a child can recover both partially and completely. It will happen about a year after recovery. During this time, the baby can come back to normal.
About kinds of illness
Having understood that such poliomyelitis, what is this illness, it is necessary to consider and the basic forms of disease. There are three of them, they differ in clinical pictures.
- Abortive form. Arises most often. Symptoms are similar to other diseases. It is acute, the symptoms disappear after 3-5 days. Diagnosed polio in this case, not immediately, because the clinical picture is very similar to the flu, colds, intestinal disorders.
- Meningeal form. The course of this type of disease is more severe, because the brain shell is affected, where the virus penetrates.
- Paralytic form. In this case, the motor neurons of the spinal cord, and in rare cases, the brain, are affected.
Depending on the type of illness, the symptomatology also differs.
Symptoms of poliomyelitis
How does the disease of poliomyelitis manifest itself? Symptoms - that's what will help to recognize a dangerous ailment. As already mentioned above, most often it is the abortive form of the disease. In this case, everything starts very sharply: the temperature rises, there may be a slight cough and nasal congestion. There is also increased sweating, nausea, diarrhea and abdominal pain. But it should be noted that even in more cases the child practically does not feel anything and the illness for the baby passes unnoticed and without consequences.
With a meningic form, everything is much more complicated and dangerous. When the inflammatory process affects the patient's brain shell, severe headaches may occur, which are not removed by medication. Often there is a vomiting in patients, which is completely unrelated to eating and as a result does not bring the desired relief. Also, doctors sometimes diagnose other meningic symptoms.
The paralytic form of poliomyelitis is considered the most dangerous and severe. However, it rarely occurs here. Symptomatology depends on the course of the disease:
- In the spinal version, the patient will have peripheral paralysis of sluggish flow, which can asymmetrically cover the limbs. There are also muscle pains, muscle tremors, urinary incontinence or constipation.
- Bulbar paralysis is the most dangerous. With this form, the part of the spinal cord that is responsible for the work of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems is affected. Symptoms can be as follows: nasal congestion, shortness of breath, speech problems, psychomotor agitation, increase or drop in blood pressure. It should also be noted that if, with this variant of the disease, the patient does not receive proper medical care, everything can end in a lethal outcome within 2-3 days.
- The pontine variant differs in that in this case the nucleus of the facial nerve is affected. The forecast is favorable.
External manifestation of the disease
What does the disease of poliomyelitis look like? Photos of patients are very different. It all depends on the form of the disease. As already mentioned above, most often this problem does not affect the appearance of the patient. Sometimes, there may be atrophy of the muscles of the back or face, which will last a lifetime. In rare cases, children become disabled. So the disease of poliomyelitis can be very different, the photos of the patients are another confirmation of this. It is impossible to treat the problem simply and carelessly, even if the percentage of severe cases is very low.
What should I do not to get polio? Doctors advise all children to get vaccinated on time. There are two ways:
- Using an inactivated vaccine. In this case, the child is given an injection.
- Using a live attenuated vaccine, which is administered through the mouth as droplets. They have a light salty taste.
After the procedure, the body acquires a strong immunity against poliomyelitis. The child will never become infected.
Often parents ask pediatricians the question: "Is it possible to do the vaccine after the disease from poliomyelitis or not?"The answer is unequivocal: no. Why is it so? It's simple. A person can acquire immunity to poliomyelitis in two cases:
- after vaccination;
- after a previous illness.
So vaccination against poliomyelitis after the disease is a completely useless action. And any doctor will not vaccinate a patient who has already been sick.
Diagnosis of the disease
How can you recognize this disease? In most cases, it is impossible to do this with a simple examination, relying only on one symptom. The final diagnosis of the doctor is made only after laboratory tests. In the first couple of weeks, the virus can be "seen" in the secretions from the nasopharynx, after this time the virus is identified in the stool. Other materials for research - blood, cerebrospinal fluid.
disease We have figured out how much after the illness it is possible to vaccinate( and whether it is necessary) from poliomyelitis, what are the features of the disease. Next, I want to talk about how to cope with this problem. Initially, it should be noted that at home polio can not be cured, regardless of the form of the disease. In this case, people's methods will not help either. Only medication will give the desired effect.
There is no single medicine for poliomyelitis, doctors help the patient in a complex, using different medications together with physiotherapy procedures. This greatly accelerates the process of recovery of patients. What medicines are relevant in this case:
- Paracetamol. It has both antipyretic and analgesic effect.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as "Ibuprofen" or "Aspirin".
- If there are problems with the stool, laxative preparations, as well as rehydrates, may be prescribed. These are medications such as "Regidron" or "Smecta".
At the same time, various physiotherapeutic procedures will be very useful, the purpose of which is to restore the functionality of the limbs. During the acute phase, special pads are placed under the joints for the patients, which do not allow parts of the body to deform. To reduce the pain syndrome, tires can be superimposed. At a certain stage of recovery, patients can rigidly fix the limbs to stabilize the work and restore the form, and not just to reduce pain, as is done at the acute stage of the disease.
If to speak about physiotherapy, then the following procedures can be useful:
- hydrotherapy, or treatment with water;
- magnetotherapy, when the body is exposed to magnetic fields;
- electrostimulation is the excitation of muscles with the help of low-frequency current;
- different in complexity of physical exercises.
What else should you know about an issue like polio? The medical history of patients varies, it all depends on the form of the disease, individual characteristics of the body, immunity and correctness of treatment.
Nuances important for poliomyelitis
Having figured out whether it is possible to get an inoculation against poliomyelitis after the illness, and how this disease generally occurs, it should be noted that bed rest is very important for this problem. First of all, it is needed in order to reduce the risk of developing a paralytic form. Secondly, it provides optimal conditions for the functioning of the weakened organism. As for nutrition, there are no strict limitations. If there is a malfunction in the intestine, then you need to adjust the food, consuming only boiled or steamed dishes.
Consequences and complications of the disease
What is the risk of poliomyelitis? The consequences of the disease with this virus problem can be very different. So, among the complications most often happens:
- Respiratory failure. Occurs when the respiratory muscle is affected.
- Myocarditis( an inflammatory process in the heart muscle), which knocks the heart.
- Various intestinal lesions. Can develop intestinal obstruction, bleeding, indigestion.
All these complications are very dangerous and can cause death.
What diseases can occur after poliomyelitis? The most varied - from ARVI and angina to intestinal disorders. In most cases, directly with the transferred disease is not connected in any way, rather the reason is the weakened immunity. But there is also such a thing as post-poliomyelitis syndrome. It is characterized by:
- muscle weakness and pain;
- fast fatigue;
- gait disturbances;
- swallowing disorders;
- shortness of breath.
This is a neurological ailment that can occur even 10 years after a childhood illness. The exact cause of its occurrence to physicians is still unknown.