The vaccine "Menaktra": instruction, description and reviews
The "Menacrete" vaccine is a new generation drug. Known to a few, since it was created relatively recently( about 10 years ago) by the American company Sanofi Pasteur. The medicine passed a number of tests and has significant differences from similar drugs. Has a number of bacteria that affect the formation of immune indicators of the body against the occurrence of meningitis and blood infection caused by meningococci.
The vaccine "Menacretra" prevents a number of diseases, the appearance of which is influenced by meningococci of certain serogroups. It is a slightly cloudy, transparent solution for intramuscular injection.
One dose, approximately 0.5 mL, includes such active ingredients as monovalent meningococcal conjugates consisting of a combination of polysaccharide-specific serogroup species( A, C, Y, W-135) and carrier protein. Each single polysaccharide is conjugated to diphtheria toxoid, the injection dosage of which is 48 μg.
Additional substances in the drug are: sodium hydrophosphate, sodium chloride, sodium dihydrogen phosphate monohydrate and special water for injection.
The preparation is packed in glass vials containing a single dose of 0.5 ml. In a cardboard box there can be one or five bottles, and also the instruction on application.
The vaccine is stored at a temperature of 2-8 ° C.It can not be frozen. She should be kept in a cool place, inaccessible to children. If the medicine has been frozen for some reason, it is not subject to further use.
The product has a shelf life of two years from the date of manufacture indicated on the package.
"Menakturu" produces the world-famous manufacturer of vaccines "Sanofi Pastor Incorporated."
"Menacrete" vaccine: a description of the pharmacological action of
As a rule, the bacterium N. Meningitidis becomes the causative agent of meningococcal diseases( eg, meningitis).A number of serotypes of this group of bacteria have been identified. The use of the vaccine "Menacretra" provokes the production of characteristic antibodies directed against the causative agent of meningococcal infection. The vaccine includes four serogroups, A, C, Y and W-135.All of them are endowed with a special bactericidal activity.
Clinical trials aimed at obtaining a result from the establishment of "Menacretra" have not been carried out, since the isolation of serum bactericidal antibodies( SBA) is the level of effectiveness of meningococcal vaccines.
Immunological qualities were considered in children from 2 to 10 years and persons aged 11-55 years. Immunogenicity was determined by the antibody functionality, which was detected by bactericidal serum analysis. In the age group 2-10 years, the immune response was considered before a single vaccination and after 28 days. An increase in the intermediate geometric titer( CGT) of bactericidal antibodies was detected. In all types of serogroups in 86-100% of cases with initial undetectable titers, seroconversion, characterized as a quadruple and more increase in antibody titres after 28 days after inoculation, was recorded.
The ability of "Menacretra" to affect immunological memory after primary vaccination in children and adults has been documented.
The results of tests in persons aged 11-18 years showed the same immune response to a single development of the vaccine. The indicators of the SSA of the SBA on the 28th day after vaccination were much higher than the baseline. In 98-100% of cases in adolescents, with the uncertainty of the initial level of antibodies, on the 28th day there was a triple increase in the titer of the SBA to all types of serogroups in the vaccine. These facts indicate a high immunogenicity of the drug in persons of the specified age.
In adults with undefined antibody titers, a fourfold increase in the CBA titer to all other types of serogroups of the pathogen in the vaccine was detected in 93-100% of cases. In all tests, the immunological response was the same regardless of gender, age and race.
There are no indices of the kinetics of the initial response to the development of the vaccine, but an immune response was recorded 7-10 days after vaccination.
The duration of the immune defense after the initial development of the vaccine is proved as a result of clinical trials and is equal to three years after a single administration of the drug.
Indications for use
The "Menacrete" vaccine is designed to prevent meningococcal infection. The appearance of the latter is affected by the N. Meningitidis bacterium with serogroups such as A, C, Y and W-135, in people of very different age categories.
Contraindications to the vaccination of
"Menacretra"( vaccine) should not be used when intolerance of active and supplemental substances in its composition. The prohibition is infectious and non-infectious diseases, as well as the period of exacerbations of chronic diseases.
Dosage and method of vaccination
The drug "Menacretra"( vaccine) instruction advises to enter intramuscularly, preferably in the region of deltoid shoulder muscles. Children under one year of medicine are injected into the muscular area of the hip, as in this category of patients shoulder muscles are poorly developed. The vaccine is done once in a dosage of 0.5 ml.
Prior to the development of the vaccine, certain safety measures must be followed to prevent undesirable consequences. The state of health in a person is analyzed, and the presence of contraindications becomes clear.
Vaccination is done only by the health care provider and under his supervision. The treatment room for such vaccinations should be equipped with preparations for anti-shock treatment.
In some cases, after the injection, fainting was observed. The medical worker who is carrying out the vaccination should be prepared for this state of affairs and in a timely manner to prevent the trauma associated with the fall, as well as provide the necessary medical care.
There are many medical documents that determine how the "Menactra" vaccine should be used. The vaccination schedule is as follows:
- Babies at the age of 9-23 months are given the vaccine in two stages. After the first inoculation, take a break for three months, and then do the second.
- For children from two years old, adolescents and adults, the drug is administered intramuscularly and only once.
The drug provides reliable protection against meningococcal infection, which manifests itself after ten days from the day of vaccination. Revaccination in this case is not provided.
Interaction with other medications
The medicine "Menacretra"( live vaccine) can be administered in combination with a polysaccharide graft, which prevents the appearance of typhoid fever. It is combined with an adsorbed tetanus and diphtheria vaccine. Joint use of the above vaccinations is allowed in the age category 11-17 and 18-55 years.
You can not put the "Menacetra" vaccine and the BCG vaccine at the same time.
If two vaccinations are carried out simultaneously, then they must be done in different parts of the body. For each injection use a separate syringe.
Pregnancy and lactation
As a result of prolonged clinical trials, it was revealed that the vaccine "Menactra" does not adversely affect the pregnancy and fetus. The description of the drug, despite this, recommends its use in this period in the event that the potential benefit to the mother exceeds the risk for fetal development. For example, its use is permissible if the diseases of meningococcal infection are of a massive nature, with an epidemic or trip to an endemic area.
The ability of the active components of this vaccine to penetrate the breast milk of a nursing woman has not been studied. In the early trials of such vaccines, antibodies to polysaccharides were detected in young mice, which the mother was still feeding. This fact did not affect the development of the offspring in any way. Such studies in humans have not been conducted.
Before vaccinating a woman during lactation, it is necessary to carefully weigh all the risks and evaluate the possible benefits of vaccination.
"Menacrete" vaccine: side effects of
After vaccination with this drug, many patients were disturbed by various negative reactions. Symptomatic varied according to age.
Thus, in persons from two to ten years, soreness, compaction, swelling and reddening of the injection zone were noted. Children after vaccination were erupt, there was drowsiness. In some cases, anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting and fever occurred. The rash and hives troubled the kids. There were manifestations in the form of arthralgia.
Adolescents 11-18 years of age and adults aged 18-55 years showed pain and denseness in the area of grafting. Disturbed headaches, diarrhea, vomiting. There was increased fatigue. Decreased appetite. There was a rash, arthralgia. There was a chill, a general malaise, a fever.
Various hypersensitivity reactions have occurred. Guillain-Barre syndrome, partial memory loss, convulsions, facial paralysis, paresthesia, transverse myelitis, dizziness, disseminated encephalomyelitis in acute form, myalgia were recorded.
A vaccine for Menacinth meningococcal infection can cause a number of ailments, but all of them are mild and disappear within a week of vaccination.
Menacinth meningitis vaccine is recommended for people at increased risk of contracting meningococcal infection. These are people who have had direct contact with patients infected with meningococci. Should be given this vaccine to people who have a deficiency of the core, as well as components of complement. The vaccine is simply vital for citizens with asplenia. It is also put to people traveling to hyperendemic areas and laboratory staff who regularly conduct various studies on the effects of N. Meningitidis. Doctors are advised to do this inoculation to students living in the hostel and recruits.
The drug can not be injected into a vein, intra- or subcutaneously. Data on the possible consequences of such a drug installation are not available.
It is forbidden to combine this vaccine in one syringe with other medicines.
The effect of vaccination on patients with thrombocytopenia or people with coagulation disorders has not been studied. There is a risk of bleeding when administered intramuscularly. In the case of vaccination, such persons should weigh the potential risk and benefit.
A similar pattern is observed with Guillain-Barre syndrome. There have been cases of progression of the disease after the introduction of the vaccine. Therefore, before vaccination, persons suffering from Guillain-Barre syndrome should carefully evaluate all possible risks.
The drug does not prevent meningitis caused by other microorganisms and bacteria, as well as diseases caused by meningococcal infection of serogroup B.
In people with weakened immunities and in persons with immunosuppressive treatment, there is often a decreased immune response to the formation of the "Menacrete" vaccine. Protective immune response can not be produced in all patients equally by 100%.
Before the forthcoming vaccination, the health worker or the treating physician should inform the patients about the harm or benefit of the vaccination, as well as the possible side effects.
Reviews about vaccination
Distinguished by high chemical purity, determines persistent and long-lasting immune defense and multivalence of "Menacrete"( vaccine).Reviews about this vaccination are mostly positive.
Many mothers put the vaccine to their children both at an early age and later. They say that it is well tolerated and rarely causes negative reactions. Some babies in the first days after grafting showed an increase in body temperature from 37.2 to 40 ° C.Disturbed by excessive irritability, decreased appetite. Doctors in response to the excitement of moms on this occasion said that this is the norm, and this is how the immune response to the introduced vaccine should be formed. Fortunately, such events were of a short duration, and my mothers soon ceased to worry about her child's condition.
Also, doctors advise before giving a vaccine to give "Fenistil" or other drugs for allergies. Adult people usually tolerate it well, without negative consequences.
Some people do not understand why to do such vaccinations without a doctor's prescription. It is noted that those who live in Russia, it is unlikely to be useful, since most people who fell ill with meningitis, acquired this disease not because of meningococcal serogroups A, C, Y, W-135, but because of the ailments. It is said that the most severe form of meningitis is caused by meningococcal serogroup B, and from it there is no vaccine for today.
Despite disagreement, many people put the vaccine "Menacra" to themselves and their children. Negative consequences from it develop extremely rarely, but it protects a person from meningococcal infections throughout life. This fact is confirmed by thousands of people rescued all over the world.