Craniocerebral injury: first aid, symptoms, signs
Blowing your head against hard objects causes a head injury. It is a mistake to think that if the bones of the skull are intact, then there is no cause for concern. Closed injury is no less dangerous than its open form. How is the traumatic brain injury manifested?
First aid should be provided very quickly, regardless of the species.
There are two forms of craniocerebral trauma.
1. Closed .It arises from the impact of the head on solid objects. In this case, the integrity of the bones of the skull is not violated. How should first aid be given with a closed head injury? This issue will be discussed later, now we will describe the symptoms. The signs by which it is possible to determine the head trauma depend on the degree of severity. A slight injury, which can cause concussion and contusion of the soft tissues of the brain, is manifested by dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Possible short-term loss of consciousness and mild amnesia. A heavier form can cause unconsciousness up to 10 minutes. A person injured, loses coordination, is not able to independently locate and recall the circumstances that led to it. It is desirable immediate hospitalization or examination of the doctor at any degree.
2. Open. The most severe form of head trauma, in which not only the skull bones are injured, but also the inner contents. Explicit defining signs are easy to notice. Deep wounds, heavy bleeding, total loss of consciousness. The patient should be immediately hospitalized. After all, only prompt and correct first aid in cases of head injury can help the victim.
Why are head injuries dangerous?
Even an easy bruise can lead to irreparable consequences for human health. A concussion accompanying most head injuries does not cause much anxiety in a person. Refusal of examination and treatment can lead to the development of diseases of the blood vessels of the brain.
Special concern should cause head injuries in children and people of advanced age. Children's injuries may well turn into deviations in development. Attacks of dizziness in the child and complaints of a headache indicate a possible concussion.
In elderly people, worn out vessels can not withstand the stress, and the risk of stroke is greatly increased.
Open head trauma is dangerous by free access of the infection to the inner contents of the brain. Large blood loss worsens the condition of the victim. Splinters of bones and foreign objects can break the shell of the brain and lead to loss of fluid. First aid for an open craniocerebral trauma should be provided very quickly. Delay leads to serious consequences for human health. Statistics show a high mortality rate among those who had a traumatic brain injury. First aid, most likely, was not rendered on time, or the wrong manipulations were made.
When is it necessary to call an ambulance?
Having witnessed the fall of a person or a car accident, it is necessary to assess the danger of the condition of the victims. After all, they may need the first medical help in case of craniocerebral trauma.
You need to call an ambulance if:
- The person does not regain consciousness for more than three minutes.
- There is bleeding in the head, mouth or nose.
- You can see cuts and open wounds.
- Difficulty breathing or missing for a few seconds.
- Cramps of the extremities.
- Coordination is broken, confusion is observed.
- Weakness and difficulty in movement.
- Severe dizziness.
The first first aid
Timely rendered first aid for the brain injury can save a person not only health, but also life.
In case of head injuries, you can not move the injured person and try to put him on his feet. A person may not be aware of his condition. He can try to rise or help other participants in the accident. This is the natural behavior of the victim from a severe blow to the head without losing consciousness. What should I do if there is a possibility that a person has a traumatic brain injury? First aid should be provided as follows:
- it is necessary for a person to try to calm and lay on his back;
- need to monitor the pulse and the state of respiratory functions;
- in the unconscious state of the victim is laid on his side - uncontrolled vomiting presents a danger of blocking the airways;
- wounds need to be bandaged or at least covered with sterile material.
When does the ambulance pick up the victim?
The ambulance team will determine the patient's condition and, if necessary, take it to hospital for urgent hospitalization if:
- the victim has not regained consciousness or inadequately evaluates his situation;
- there is a partial or total loss of memory;
- there was a visual impairment, narrowing or dilating pupils;
- paresis of limbs and other neurological disorders;
- open wounds and bleeding.
The victim is delivered to the neurosurgical unit for procedures. With open head injuries, urgent diagnosis is necessary with the help of special equipment, surgical intervention.
The chances for a full recovery largely depend on the state of human health before the incident and the complexity of the injury. Long-term treatment in the hospital and continuation of out-patient observation of specialists are required. It is possible to compose a full opinion on the health consequences not earlier than in a year. Full recovery can last more than five years.
Treatment of minor injuries
Timely diagnosis of head trauma and properly prescribed treatment help to avoid consequences with brain contusions and concussion.
What to do with a person with a traumatic brain injury, was he already given first aid? X-ray and MRI will determine whether there are internal hemorrhages. Depending on this, treatment is prescribed. With a satisfactory condition, the patient is discharged for home treatment.
During this period, a patient with concussion is required:
- complete rest and bed rest;
- regular intake of prescribed medications;
- copious drink.
It is recommended to drink acidic liquids with nausea. It can be fruit and juice from apples, cranberries and cranberries.
Also it is necessary to exclude extraneous stimuli( watching TV, working on the computer, reading books and bright lights).
The use of folk remedies is not contraindicated for an early cure.
Traditional medicine in the treatment of concussion
Head trauma is not a new disease. Village doctors successfully used medicinal herbs to solve problems.
Tincture of aralia is used to restore the functions of the brain. Prepare it, pouring 50 grams of raw material 0.5 liters of medical alcohol. Infuse 3 weeks. Take a teaspoon, brewing in half a glass of water.
The decoction of the officinal officinalis improves blood circulation and dilutes the blood. A teaspoon of herbs pour a glass of hot water( the temperature should be more than 80 degrees) and insist about twenty minutes. Take a third cup 3 times a day.
Herbs that have a soothing effect, can cope with anxiety conditions accompanying a concussion. The root of valerian in the form of a pharmacy tincture, a decoction of blue cyanosis, a motherwort infusion will help to establish sleep.
Any disease is easier to prevent than cure. This is especially true for serious injuries that could be avoided in most cases, observing safety rules.
- For team-based sports, cycling and other active activities, protective measures must be used. Helmet and other sports accessories will help protect your head in collisions, crashes and bumps.
- Use seat belts and monitor the condition of the vehicle's braking system when traveling.
- Observe the rules of the road both as a driver and as a pedestrian.
- Ensure the safety of children in the apartment. Do not leave unattended. Limit access to traumatic objects. Eliminate the possibility of falling unstable heavy items of furniture. If necessary, use soft rollers and cushions covering the sharp corners of the beds and sofas.
- Observe safety rules during ice. Anti-slip lining for shoes to avoid falling.
- Do not walk along buildings during snow melting and the risk of falling icicles and ice from the roofs of tall houses.
Observance of safety measures will reduce the chance of getting a head injury.
Now you know what kind of head injury is, the first aid should be provided. We hope that the information provided in the article was helpful to you.