How does the climate affect people? Sharp change of climate, consequences
The health and mental state of a person depends on many factors. One of them is the climate, it has a huge impact on the human body. In this article, we will look at how climate affects people.
When the climatic impact of
is noticeable The most obvious effect occurs in the following cases:
- A drastic change of weather. A sudden strong wind, a thunderstorm or cold snap cause a change in your health. People do not feel much worse than they feel, but heart, hypertensive people, diabetics have severe headaches, pressure goes up to hypertensive crisis, there may be a heart attack.
- Long distance travel. The climate and man have a close relationship between each other. For example, when residents of the North come to rest on the sea, for a while they feel not too good because of the sea air, hot sun and other factors. Doctors do not recommend to make long-distance travel to people with chronic diseases.
Many believe that if you live in one place for a long time, then the body adapts over time, and any influence ceases, but in reality it is not. Climatic conditions affect a person constantly. For some, this is a beneficial effect, for others it is detrimental. It all depends on the individual characteristics of each.
What is the climate of
? This is not only a combination of hot and cold days in the year, not just the average daily temperature or the amount of precipitation. These are meteorological phenomena, as well as terrestrial and solar radiation, a magnetic field, a landscape, electricity, emitted by the atmosphere. The effect of climate on man is due to the combination of these factors.
The scientific approach of
Even in ancient times in India and Tibet, conclusions were made about how different weather conditions affect the state of health, such as sun, rain, thunderstorms. In these countries and to this day study how climate affects people. For treatment methods that are closely related to the seasons or weather are preserved. Already in the 460's, Hippocrates wrote in his treatises that weather and health have a direct relationship between themselves.
The development and progression of certain diseases is uneven during the year. All doctors know that in winter and autumn there is an exacerbation of gastrointestinal diseases. A more scientific approach to this issue was implemented in the XIX century, when prominent scientists of the time - Pavlov, Sechenov and others - studied the way in which the climate affects people in the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. They conducted medical experiments, analyzed the available information and came to the conclusion that some epidemics appear and are especially severe depending on climatic conditions. Thus, the outbreak of the Western Nile fever was recorded twice in Russia during the abnormally warm winter. Already in our time, these observations have been repeatedly confirmed.
Types of interaction
There are two types of climate effects on the body: direct and indirect. The first is directly related to climatic conditions, and its results are easily distinguishable. This can be observed on the processes of heat exchange of man and the environment, as well as on skin integuments, perspiration, blood circulation and metabolism.
The indirect effect of climate on a person is more time-consuming. These are changes in his body that occur after a certain period of time has elapsed in a particular natural zone. One example of this effect is adaptation to the climate. Many climbers experience painful sensations and breathing problems when climbing to great heights. However, they pass with frequent ascents or with a certain adaptation program.
Effect of high temperatures on the human body
The hot climate, especially tropical with high humidity, is a very aggressive environment in terms of the degree of impact on the human body. First of all, this is due to increased heat transfer. At high temperatures, it rises 5-6 times. This leads to the fact that the receptors transmit signals to the brain, and the blood begins to circulate much faster, at which time the vessels expand. If such measures are not sufficient to maintain the heat balance, then a profuse sweating begins. Most often, people suffering from heart disease suffer from heat. Physicians confirm that a hot summer is a time when the most heart attacks occur, and also an exacerbation of chronic cardiovascular diseases.
You should also know how the climate affects people living in the tropics. They have a lean physique, a more sinewy structure. Africans can observe elongated limbs. Among residents of hot countries there are fewer people with large fatty deposits. In general, the population of these countries is "smaller" than the one that lives in natural areas where the climate is temperate.
Effect on the health of lower temperatures
Those who enter the northern regions or live there permanently, there is a decrease in heat transfer. This is achieved by slowing the blood circulation and narrowing the vessels. The normal reaction of the body is the achievement of a balance between heat transfer and heat formation, and if this does not happen, then the body temperature gradually decreases, the body functions become depressed, the psyche breaks down, the result is a cardiac arrest. An important role in the normal functioning of the organism where the cold climate is played by lipid metabolism. The northerners are much faster and easier to metabolize, so you need a constant replenishment of energy losses. For this reason, their main diet is fats and proteins.
The inhabitants of the north have a larger physique and a significant layer of subcutaneous fat, which prevents heat release. But not all people are able to properly adapt to the cold, if there is a sharp change in climate. Usually, the work of a protective mechanism in such people leads to the fact that they develop a "polar disease".To avoid complications with adaptation to cold, you must take in large quantities of vitamin C.
Weather and health have a direct and very close relationship between each other. In regions characterized by a gradual change in weather conditions, people are less keenly experiencing these transitions. It is believed that the middle band has the most favorable climate for health. Because where the seasons change is very dramatic, most people suffer from rheumatic reactions, the occurrence of pain in places of old injuries, headaches associated with pressure drops.
However, there is a downside to the coin. Moderate climate does not contribute to the development of rapid adaptation to the new environment. Few people from the middle band are able without any problems to get used to a sharp change in the temperature of the environment, immediately adapt to the hot air and the bright sun of the south. They often suffer from headaches, burn faster in the sun and get used to new conditions longer.
The fact that the climate and people are inextricably linked, confirm the following facts:
- The inhabitants of the south are harder to tolerate the cold where local people can walk without wearing many clothes.
- When residents of arid areas fall into the tropical terrain, where water literally stands in the air, they begin to ache.
- Heat and high humidity make people from the middle zone and northern areas sluggish, sickly and apathetic, they become hard to breathe, and sweating increases at times.
Temperature changes are a serious test for health. Particularly painful is the climate change for the child. What happens in the body with sudden temperature fluctuations?
A very cold climate provokes excessive excitation, while heat, on the contrary, plunges a person into a state of apathy. The change of these two states depends on the speed with which the temperature changes. With a sharp cooling or warming, chronic problems worsen, cardiovascular diseases develop. Only with a smooth transition from low temperatures to high and vice versa does the body manage to adapt.
Height is also unsafe
Air humidity and pressure change are also of great importance. First of all, this affects thermoregulation. Cold air cools the body, and hot, on the contrary, on what the skin receptors react accordingly. Very good such influence is noticeable when climbing into the mountains, where with every ten meters the climatic conditions, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and air temperature change.
Already at an altitude of 300 meters, hyperventilation of the lungs starts because the wind and low oxygen content in the air interfere with normal breathing. Blood circulation is accelerated, because the body tries to disperse insufficient oxygen in all cells. With an increase in height, these processes become even more intense, a large number of red blood cells and hemoglobin appear in the blood.
At high altitudes, where low oxygen content and stronger solar radiation, a person significantly increases metabolism. This can slow the development of diseases associated with metabolism. However, a sharp change in altitude can also have a detrimental effect. That is why many people are recommended rest and treatment in sanatoriums at moderate altitudes, where there is higher pressure and cleaner air, but at the same time there is enough oxygen in it. In the last century, many tuberculosis patients were sent to such sanatoriums or places with a dry climate.
With frequent changes in natural conditions, the human body eventually builds something like a barrier, so no significant changes are observed. Adaptation is quick and relatively painless, regardless of the direction of travel and how dramatically the temperature changes with climate change.
Climbers experience great overloads on tops that can become deadly. Therefore, they take special oxygen cylinders with them, while local residents who live high above sea level from birth do not have such problems.
The climate protection mechanism is currently unclear to scientists.
The influence of seasonal changes is also important. Healthy people practically do not react to them, the body adjusts itself for a certain time of the year and continues to work optimal for it. But people who have chronic ailments or traumas can react painfully to the transition from one season to another. At the same time, there is a change in the speed of mental reactions, the work of endocrine glands, as well as the rate of heat exchange. These changes are quite normal and are not deviations, so people do not notice them.
Some people are particularly sensitive to changes in the temperature environment and climate, this phenomenon is called meteopathy, or meteorological dependence. There can be many reasons for this: individual characteristics of the organism, weakened immunity due to illness. In addition, they may experience symptoms such as increased drowsiness and impotence, sore throat, runny nose, dizziness, inability to concentrate, shortness of breath and nausea.
In order to overcome these problems, you need to analyze your condition and identify what specific changes cause these symptoms. After that, you can try to deal with them. First of all, normalization of the general condition is promoted by a healthy lifestyle. It includes: prolonged sleep, proper nutrition, walking in the fresh air, moderate physical activity.
To combat heat and dryness of air, you can use fresheners and air conditioners, helps abundant drinking. Necessarily need to eat fresh fruit and meat.
Climatic changes during pregnancy
It is not uncommon for meteorological dependence to occur in pregnant women who before that had been quite calmly experiencing a change of seasons or weather.
Pregnant women are not recommended to make long trips or long trips. In the "interesting" position, the body is already under stress from hormonal changes, besides, most of the nutrients come from the fetus, not from the female body. For these reasons, the additional loads associated with adapting to a new climate during the trip are completely useless.
Influence of climate on children's body
Children are also keenly responding to climate change. But here everything happens a little differently than in adults. The child's organism, in principle, adapts much more quickly to any conditions, so a healthy child does not experience big problems when changing the season or the climate.
The main problem with climate change is not in the process of adaptation, but in the reaction of the child himself. Any climate change causes certain processes in the human body. And if adults can adequately respond to them, for example, in the heat of hiding in the shade or wearing headdresses, then the children's sense of self-preservation is not so developed. Body signals from adults will lead to the adoption of certain measures, the child will ignore them. It is for this reason that during the climate change, adults should closely monitor the baby's condition.
Because children react more sharply to different climatic changes, in medicine there is a whole section - climatotherapy. Doctors who practice such treatment, without the help of medicines, can achieve significant improvements in the child's health.
The most beneficial effect on the children's body is the marine or mountain climate. Sea salt water, sun baths have a beneficial effect on his mental state, and also strengthen overall health and contribute to the development of vitamin D.
In order to achieve a certain effect, the child needs to spend at least four weeks at the resort, which is the optimal period. In severe forms of chronic diseases or pathologies, the spa period can take several months. Most often, treatment in sea and mountain areas is used for children with rickets, respiratory and skin diseases, mental disorders.
Climate impact on older people
Elderly people are the category that needs to be particularly attentive to climate change or travel. This is primarily due to the fact that people of advanced age often suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system, as well as the musculoskeletal system. A sharp change of climate can be detrimental to their health and the course of these diseases. In summer, seizures occur most often, the mortality of old people increases.
The second factor is the speed of adaptation, as well as habits. If a young and healthy person needs five to seven days to adapt to a new climate, then in elderly people, these terms significantly increase, and not always the body is able to respond adequately to a change in temperature, humidity or pressure. This is the risk of traveling older people.
Abrupt change of the climatic zone is sure to result in a change in the time zone and the duration of the day and night. These changes are hard to tolerate even by healthy people, not to mention the elderly. Insomnia is one of the most innocent problems of the elderly.
Health effects of different climatic zones
The marine climate has a beneficial effect on people with nervous system disorders. Cool air does not cause irritation, near the sea there is rarely a sharp change in temperature, in winter it's warmer, and in the summer it's cooler. In addition, the sea dissipates the solar radiation, and the opportunity to enjoy a large open space positively affects the eyes and soothes the nerves.
The mountain climate, on the contrary, serves to excite nervous activity and improve efficiency. This is due to high pressure, frequent changes in temperature, when you can sunbathe in the daytime, and at night you have to save yourself from frostbite. The fast change of day and night plays a role, because in the mountains this process is almost invisible. Very often, people engaged in creative activities, go to the mountains to draw inspiration.
Northern climate, where it is constantly cold and there is no special variety of landscapes, tempers not only character, but also human health. Scientists have proved that people who are constantly in places with a cold climate are more resistant to various diseases, including chronic ones. The inhabitants of the north practically do not suffer from diabetes mellitus and slowly grow old.