What happens to the air in the nasal cavity? Anatomy of the nose
It's impossible to live without air. Our whole life consists of rhythmic breathing and exhalation. This is how the life-giving oxygen enters the body. And what happens to the air in the nasal cavity? Why is it important for a person to breathe properly and freely?
Basic functions of the nose and nasal cavity
Nature has placed on the human nose four main functions:
- Breathing. The most important function, designed to ensure the supply of oxygen to the tissues.
- Smelling. One of the feelings that allows you to fully live, perceiving the smells of the world.
- Protection. What happens to the air in the nasal cavity? First of all, it is purified. All major impurities, such as dust, are retained on internal hairs, called cilia. Smaller particles settle on the nasal mucosa. In addition, there is a kind of disinfection, because the nasal mucus detoxifies the bacteria that came with the air. And in the nasal cavity the air warms up to the necessary temperature and is moisturized. Warming the air in the nasal cavity helps to avoid many problems and diseases.
- Acoustics. The nasal cavity amplifies the sound. Resonator function facilitates the pronunciation of consonant sounds.
Anatomy. Outer nose
The nose is considered the entrance to the upper respiratory tract. This organ consists of three components:
- outer nose;
- the nasal cavity;
- accessory sinuses.
Outer nose is called the osteoarticular base, covered with muscle tissue and skin. The shape of the nose is individual for each person, but in general it is a figure approximating to an irregular trihedral pyramid. Nasal bones are paired, they are fixed on the frontal bone, forming a back of the nose. The wings and the tip are formed from cartilaginous tissue. And the skin-muscular cover has a large number of capillaries, nerve fibers and sebaceous glands.
Clinical anatomy of the nose. Nasal cavity
We begin with the clinical anatomy. That is, we determine the structure and position of the nose and its cavity. In addition, we will determine with which departments the body interacts. In the previous section, the location and contact of the outer part of the organ with other parts of the skull was described. As for the nasal cavity, it is located between the oral cavity and the fossa of the skull. And on each side are eye sockets.
The nasal cavity is divided into 2 parts by a septum. Interaction with the external environment occurs through the nostrils, with the nasopharynx - through the hohana( inner nasal opening).On each side of the nasal cavity is surrounded by four paranasal sinuses.
Why not breathe with the mouth
Many people breathe through their mouths, not understanding why it should not be done. Especially it concerns children. What happens to the air when breathing? To begin with, it passes through the outer nose and nasal cavity. Before allowing the flow of air into the larynx, the body warms and clears it while passing through the nose. Through the larynx, air enters the trachea and bronchi, then into the lungs. Pulmonary vesicles( alveoli) are filled with air, received by inhalation, and give it to the blood through numerous capillaries. When breathing through the mouth into the lungs directly fall particles of dust and other foreign elements.
If the children breathe through the mouth, then they can under-develop the maxillary sinuses and narrow the nasal passages. In addition, this leads to improper growth of the teeth, which begin to "creep" on each other. Since the balance between the facial and jaw parts is disturbed, speech difficulties begin.
Understanding what happens to air in the nasal cavity, and how the wrong breath affects a person, it is much easier to explain to children and adults why it is necessary to breathe through the nose, not the mouth.
Diseases of the external nose
Diseases of the external nose are not very many. This can be a congenital anomaly in toddlers. Such as the lateral trunk( dysgenesis), that is, the appearance of an additional nostril. There may be underdevelopment of one half of the nose or nasal cartilage( hypogenesis).
Common injuries of the external nose are injuries. These can be fractures of the nasal bones and even organ detachment.
With age, the outer nose can affect the rhinophyma. This disease is poorly understood, in people it is called a raspberry, wine or potato nose. Disease leads to an increase in the body and a change in its shape. More common in men.
Diseases of the nasal cavity
Diseases of the external nose and nasal cavity can be congenital and acquired. Congenital, for example, is the narrowness of the nasal passages. The constriction may be partial or complete.
Often the nasal cavity is damaged as a result of injuries and bruises. Possible damage to the internal nasal septum, which has a bad effect on air permeability. The curvature of the internal septum makes breathing difficult.
Another common disease is a sharp cold. This is called inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose. Rhinitis may be an independent disease or be one of the symptoms of another infectious lesion.
Acute rhinitis sometimes becomes chronic. Chronic rhinitis is often a long independent disease. Chronic process is divided into simple, hypertrophic, atrophic and allergic forms. If the chronic rhinitis is not treated, the patency of the Eustachian tubes and the development of the middle ear catarrh can be disrupted.
One of their chronic diseases of the nasal cavity is called "ozena".The disease is expressed in the sharp atrophy of the nasal mucosa. Over time, the process affects not only the mucous membrane, but also the bone structures of the shells. The problem has not been sufficiently studied, but physicians suggest that its roots lie in external factors and living conditions.
Understanding what happens to air in the nasal cavity, a person is more serious about maintaining health. This allows you to stop the pathological processes in time and avoid serious problems.