Anesthetic is. .. Local anesthetics
Anesthesia is an indispensable procedure for any surgical manipulation. Science, which deals with the reduction of suffering during surgical interventions, is called anesthesiology. In addition to surgery, anesthesia is also used in other branches of medicine. For example, in dentistry, while carrying out some instrumental examinations( FGDS, colonoscopy).To anesthetize a certain area, local anesthetics are used. Many surgical interventions require not only a local effect, but also the introduction of a patient into drug-induced sleep. In another way, such anesthesia is called anesthesia.
Anesthetic is what?
In order to minimize pain, anesthetics are used. Depending on the severity of the treatment procedure, select which substance should be used. Currently, local anesthetics are given preference. Exceptions are only those cases when the surgical intervention is too extensive and takes a lot of time. Also, anesthesia is used in operations in children and in people with mental disorders. Regardless of whether a general or local anesthetic is used, both of these are anesthetics. The scope of their application is quite extensive. Anesthetic is a substance that helps to relieve or completely remove pain. For the most part, it is used for medical purposes. The main directions of its application:
- Surgery - all kinds of operations on internal organs.
- Dentistry - anesthesia in the treatment and removal of teeth.
- Traumatology - for fractures, dislocations, stretching of limbs.
- Pharmacology - the addition of painkillers in various drugs( gels for gums with teething, rectal suppositories against hemorrhoids).
- Visual diagnostics - local anesthetics in the exercise of EGF, broncho- and colonoscopy.
It should be remembered that an anesthetic is a medication necessary for anesthesia. Depending on the chemical structure, these drugs are divided into fast and short-range, strong and weak, narcotic, etc. The classification is based on the nature of the effect on the human body. Proceeding from this, anesthetics are divided into local anesthetics and general anesthesia. Each of these groups has its own characteristics. And also the anesthetics are divided among themselves depending on the method of administration of the preparation.
General anesthesia involves systemic anesthesia and the introduction of a person into drug-induced sleep. This type of anesthesia is used for massive and prolonged operations. The methods of administration of drugs for general anesthesia - parenteral and inhalation.
Local anesthesia refers to the anesthesia of a body site on which therapeutic manipulation will be performed. It is used for simple operations, dental treatment, as well as for invasive examinations.
Varieties of local anesthetics
Various drugs are used for local anesthesia. By chemical structure, they are divided into 2 main groups - substituted amides and esters of aromatic acids. Representatives of these groups are known to almost everyone - it is lidocaine and novocaine. In addition to the chemical composition, local anesthesia is classified by the route of administration. This separation is necessary in order to determine the depth and duration of the drug:
- Surface anesthesia. This kind of anesthesia is the easiest. This method reduces the sensitivity of the skin and mucous membranes. It is mainly used for superficial wounds.
- Infiltration anesthesia. The method consists in the layerwise administration of an anesthetic. It is used to conduct a deep incision not only the surface tissues, but also deeper, such as subcutaneous fat and muscle.
- Conducting anesthesia. In turn, this type of anesthesia is divided into epidural and spinal anesthesia.
Mechanism of action of anesthetics
An anesthetic is a drug that helps to temporarily lose the sensitivity of some particular area or organism as a whole. Each of the types of anesthesia has its own mechanism of action:
- Terminal anesthesia is characterized by a loss of sensitivity of the superficial nerve endings that are on the skin and mucous membranes. Medicines that are used in this form of anesthesia - "Benzocaine", "Tetrakain"( the prices for them fluctuate depending on the form of release).
- Infiltration anesthesia has a similar mechanism, the difference is that the active substance impregnates the body tissues throughout the depth of the incision. To do this, apply "Novocaine"( 30 rubles - 200 ml).
- Conductive anesthesia consists in suppressing the sensitivity of the entire nerve fiber( below the anesthetic site).To this end, apply "Bupivacaine", "Artikain"( 300 rubles - 10 ampoules of 2 ml).
- For general anesthesia, inhalation anesthetics are used that penetrate the body through the lungs. They bind to receptors and cause not only anesthesia, but also a sedative effect( sleep).
Indications for the use of anesthetics
There are many indications for the use of anesthetics. The most common ones are:
- Operations of any complexity, regardless of localization.
- Removal and treatment of teeth.
- Conducting invasive examination methods.
- Some cosmetic procedures( removal of papillomas on the skin and mucous membranes).
Add anesthetics to various medications( suppositories, ointments, resorption tablets, napkins).Saturate condoms and other contraceptives with analgesics.
In what cases are anesthetics contraindicated?
The main contraindication for the use of any kind of analgesics are allergic reactions to the drug. It is especially dangerous to use anesthetics in people who have a history of anaphylactic shock or angioedema. Relative contraindications are pregnancy and the period of breastfeeding. In this case, the manipulation is suggested to be postponed if it is not considered urgent( vital).For inhalational anesthetics, contraindications are decompensated chronic diseases. Especially it concerns cardiovascular pathologies and chronic renal failure. Contraindications for local anesthesia in surgical operations are children's age. Also, local anesthesia is not recommended for people with mental illness. In these cases, a general anesthesia is carried out.
Side effects of anesthetics
Side effects of local anesthetics include allergic reactions in the form of anaphylactic shock, edema, urticaria, pruritus. Conduction of general anesthesia is dangerous due to cardiac arrest or respiratory depression( with an overdose of the drug).Also, after the inhalation and intravenous anesthesia, the patient may be disturbed by hallucinations, increased motor activity, and general weakness. All these phenomena should not exceed 24 hours from the moment of introduction of anesthesia.
Why use condoms with anesthetic?
Currently, there are many modifications of barrier contraceptives. One of them is condoms with an anesthetic. They are used to prolong sexual contact. The mechanism of action is to reduce the sensitivity of the glans penis. To this end, anesthetic is added to the condom lubrication. The price of these contraceptives is slightly higher than that of conventional condoms.