Anal polyps in the anus: symptoms and treatment
Polyps of the anal canal and rectum are called tumor-like benign formations that emanate from the mucous membrane of the anorectal area. Often their development is asymptomatic, but they can also manifest as discomfort in the anal passage or itching, pain and even bleeding due to erosion.
If anal polyps are infected, it can lead to paraproctitis and the appearance of anal cracks. It is necessary to remove the rectal polyps, because they are able to go to the segment of malignant, they are referred to precancerous diseases of the rectum.
What is a polyp?
A tumor formation that is attached to the wall of the hollow organ is polypised. They belong to a fairly common pathology and are able to form in any organ of the digestive system. Anal polyps are benign and can occur in groups, and one at a time. This disease can be found in people of any age, even in children. Family polyposis( hereditary), which is present in close relatives, tends to become malignant. Polyposis affects more men( one and a half times) than women. About 10% of people over 45, according to research conducted by the American Association of Cancer, suffer from polyps in the intestines.1% of cases of this disease become malignant. However, if the signs of bleeding( malignancy) were detected already at an early stage and timely medical assistance was provided, the prognosis is much better( 84% of patients survive).
Types of polyps
Anal polyps can be divided by distribution and by number: multiple polyps in the form of groups of formations in different parts of the colon and polyp single, as well as diffuse hereditary polyposis.
According to the morphological structure, polyps can be divided into fibrous, glandular-villous, glandular, juvenile( cystic-granulating), hyperplastic and villous. Moreover, the pseudopolyposis is also isolated, when in case of chronic inflammation the mucosa grows according to the type of polyps. What does the anal polyp look like? You can see the photo in the article.
Symptoms of rectum polyps
There are no specific clinical manifestations that would help to say with certainty about the presence of this pathology, rectal polyps are not available. The severity and presence of symptoms depends on the number of polyps, the morphological structure, their size, location, and the absence or presence of malignant growth. But this is not all, very often the clinical picture is accompanied by symptoms of concomitant pathologies.
Usually polyps are detected during endoscopic examination of the intestine for another disease. Large anal polyps can appear bloody or mucous discharge from the anus, a sense of presence in the anus of the foreign body, discomfort. There are painful sensations in the ileum, as well as the lower abdomen. Often, polyps can cause impaired intestinal motility, while contributing to the occurrence of diarrhea or constipation.
Consequences of polyps
The most frequent consequence of polyps can be called constipation, because their presence in the lumen causes partial obstruction of the intestine. A dangerous sign requiring immediate medical attention is bleeding, because it can be caused by an oncological pathology, the detection of which at an early stage will facilitate a more successful treatment. The occurrence of the inflammatory process in polyps is most often indicated by pain in the abdomen. How to reveal the polyp of the anal opening? About this further.
Diagnosis of rectum polyps
Due to the transition of polyps to the category of malignant tumors of the colon, a number of oncological tumors have been identified. In this connection it is possible to advise patients when revealing a polyposis to regularly undergo examinations with a proctologist for the malignization of these same polyps.
Detection of malignant growth in the polyps of the rectal wall at an early stage can contribute to the timely removal of the tumor and a 90% recovery. To detect polyps of the terminal department and the anal canal of the rectum, finger examination of the anus is used. This kind of research also allows to exclude or reveal other diseases, for example, rectal fistulas, hemorrhoids, cysts and cell tumors of the pararectal, anal fissures. Finger research in men, including, allows you to understand the state of the prostate.
How do they detect anal fibrotic polyps?
Recto-manoscopy is an instrumental informative study of the rectum, which allows you to examine the inner wall of the intestine at a height of 25 cm from the anus. The main part of polyps arises in the sigmoid and rectum, they can be detected with the help of a rectoscope. Colonoscopy will allow the physician to visualize the completely large intestine and its walls. These techniques can be called optimal for the detection of polyps, and they contribute to the detection of other pathologies of the intestine and the study of its mucosa. The polyp of the anal canal, the size of which is more than 1 cm, makes it possible to reveal in the upper parts of the colon an irrigoscopy. If the polyps were detected during the endoscopy, the specialists conduct a biopsy sampling for further histological and cytological studies.
It can also be noted among the laboratory techniques the test of feces for latent blood, which is produced if the intestinal pathology is suspected. To modern methods of visualization of internal organs can be attributed to computer and magnetic resonance imaging, which also contribute to the detection of pathologies of the large intestine.
It is necessary to distinguish the polyp of the anal canal from a number of other pelvic diseases, its organs, such as:
- tumors of an ineffective nature: myoma( muscle layer tumor) and angioma( vascular tumor);
- of Crohn's disease, which can be considered a pseudopolyposis;
- actinomycosis of the colon( most often a tumor of the caecum).
Histological examination is of primary importance in the differential diagnosis of polyps of the large intestine.
RAP polyp rectal therapy
Conservative polyps are not treated. If the size of the polyp and its location allows, then it is removed during endoscopy, and if not, then surgically. Polyps low lying delete transanal. Small polyps that were detected during colonoscopy are removed during the endoscopic procedure by electroexcision( the leg of the polyp is clamped by a loop electrode and squeezed).
How is the anal polyp removed?
The largest polyps are removed in parts. In rare cases complications can occur in polypectomy in the form of bleeding and perforation of the intestinal wall. The removed polyps are subjected to a histological examination. If cancer cells were found during the study, they raise the question of resection of the intestinal tract, which is affected. Hereditary or familial polyposis is treated with total resection of the large intestine and the union of its free end subsequently with the anus. When combined with adenomatosis and tumors of other tissues, Garder's syndrome( osteoma of the cranial bones), only this kind of treatment can give a result.
This is the removal of the anal canal polyp.
Prognosis for rectal polyps
In most cases, timely removal and detection of polyps are accompanied by recovery. But there are frequent cases of relapse after one to three years, so a year after the removal of large-sized polyps, a control colonoscopy is performed, and it is also recommended that the endoscopy be regularly passed about every 3-5 years. The transition of the polyp into the stage of malignant formation is directly related to the number and size of the formations. Multiple large polyps are much more often malignant, since the risk of malignancy can reach 20%.The greatest probability of a transition to cancer in a family polyposis.
Prevention of polyps of the rectum
Currently, there is no special prevention of polyps. To reduce the risk of their occurrence, it is recommended to eat balanced, lead an active lifestyle and take timely tests of the digestive tract and treat identified diseases. The most important measure for the prevention of the development of rectal cancer is the early detection of polyps.