Diabetes is. .. Diagnosis, risk factors, causes, treatment
Diabetes is a serious illness that can affect both adults and children. It causes a violation of the pancreas, resulting in an increased sugar content in the blood. This leads to serious complications, many of which are not compatible with life.
Diabetes: definition of
First, we'll figure it out in some terms. What is diabetes? This disease, which is accompanied by a violation of water-salt and mineral metabolism, the exchange of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in the body. This imbalance arises from the malfunction of the pancreas, which for some reason stops producing the hormone insulin. It is this hormone responsible for the level of glucose in the blood of a person. Diabetes is a hereditary or acquired disease. Has a chronic nature. Until the end it is impossible to heal, doctors are trying to minimize the disease and minimize possible complications.
What is dangerous for diabetes?
In a person with diabetes mellitus, the blood glucose level is increased, and the insulin content is lowered. In advanced cases, sugar is also determined in the urine. As a result, purulent wounds, atherosclerosis, hypertension, kidney damage, central nervous system, vision impairment may occur. As you can see, diabetes is a dangerous disease. Therefore, one should not let him go.
Causes of ailment
Doctors distinguish such risk factors for diabetes:
- Sedentary lifestyle.
- Lack of sleep.
- Incorrect power.
- Abuse of sweet drinks.
All these risk factors for diabetes mellitus can lead to a worsening of the patient's condition. Therefore it is important to observe the regime of the day, to eat right, to avoid stresses, and to engage in physiotherapy exercises. It is important to remember that diabetes is not a sentence. Timely treatment can help.
What doctors advise
Patients are naturally interested in: "What to do with diabetes?"To answer this question, it is necessary to go a little deeper into the topic.
There are type 1 and type 2 diabetes. At the first type the person completely becomes insulin-dependent, and at the second type - is not present. Treatment of type 2 diabetes consists of a low-carbohydrate diet, exercise therapy and tablets that increase sensitivity to insulin. In some cases, direct injections of insulin itself.
What to be aware of
Doctors warn that it is necessary to try to prevent complications of type 2 diabetes. This disease can cause the development of such ailments as hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, polyneuropathy, ophthalmopathy, arthropathy, among which diabetic angiopathy should be noted separately. That's how dangerous is diabetes! It is the numerous accompanying pathologies that can lead to aggravation of the patient's condition. Complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus are not a verdict in the case of timely diagnosis and treatment.
Diabetic angiopathy is a dangerous disease that occurs as a complication in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. If a person is sick for more than 5 years, then most likely, diabetic angiopathy has already begun to develop. So you need to think about the treatment, not about its prevention.
This complication is manifested in a gradual violation of the patency of arterial vessels. Based on the location of the affected vessel, we can talk about failures in the work of the following organs:
- of the eye;
The causes of diabetic angiopathy
The main cause of this disease is the destructive effect of a high level of sugar, which destroys the walls of capillaries, veins, arteries. The walls can be deformed, thinned or thickened, which prevents normal metabolism and blood flow as a whole. Such destruction leads to hypoxia( lack of oxygen in the body) of tissues and damage to the internal organs of the patient.
Types and Symptoms of Diabetic Angiopathy
In medicine, there are 2 types of this disease:
- macroangiopathy is a disease in which arteries and veins are affected;
- microangiopathy is a disease in which capillaries are affected.
It is believed that the use of insulin protects against the occurrence of angiopathies, which in 80% of cases lead to death or disability of the patient. But this is not so.
Symptoms of vascular damage by macro- and microangiopathy are different and have several stages of development.
Stages of development of macroangiopathy:
- Stage 1 - the patient begins to quickly get tired, feel stiff in the movements, the toes can be dull, and the nails - thicken. Legs perspire and are constantly cold. It is possible to develop intermittent claudication( intervals can reach up to 1 km).
- 2а stage - the patient complains of numbness of feet, and legs begin to freeze even in the summer. The skin of the limbs is pale, and intermittent claudication begins to appear at smaller intervals - 200-500 m.
- 2b stage - the symptoms remain the same, but intermittent claudication begins to appear at smaller intervals - 50-200 m.
- 3a stage - symptoms begin to worsen, pain is addedin the legs, which is very disturbing at night. The skin becomes pale, and the toes begin to acquire a cyanotic color, if you stand or sit for a very long time. The skin begins to peel and dry, intermittent claudication begins to appear at a distance of 50 m.
- 3b stage - the pain syndrome begins to have a permanent character, and the lower limbs swell strongly. There is a huge chance of ulcers, which can go to tissue necrosis.
- Stage 4 - necrosis of the fingers or feet, which is accompanied by weakness, high temperature( there is an infectious focus in the body).
Development of microangiopathy is characterized by 6 degrees:
- 0 degree - complaints from the patient are not observed. Identify the disease can only a doctor.
- 1 degree - the patient complains of the pale skin of the legs and the feeling of cold. Possible occurrence of small ulcers, which are not accompanied by painful sensations or fever.
- 2 degree - ulcers begin to affect bones, muscles;severe pain syndrome.
- 3 degree - the edges and bottom of ulcers are black, indicating necrosis. Sites affected by the ulcer start to swell and blush. There is a high probability of development of inflammation of the bone marrow and tissue( osteomyelitis), abscesses and purulent skin diseases( phlegmon).
- 4 degree - necrosis of fingers or other parts of the foot.
- 5 degree - necrosis spreads to the entire foot, which leads to an immediate amputation of the limb.
Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic angiopathy
Symptoms and complaints of the patient are not sufficient grounds for preliminary diagnosis. Therefore, the doctor prescribes the appointment for the following diagnostic measures:
- Analyzes for determining blood sugar and urine.
- Angiography is an x-ray method for examining the vascular status using contrast agents.
- Doppler scan - ultrasound of vessels using Doppler sensor, which shows the flow of blood through the vessels.
- Determination of pulsation in vessels.
- Video capillaroscopy.
Timely diagnosis and subsequent treatment can prevent the development of gangrene and limb amputation. Diabetic angiopathy has been developing for several years. In the case of non-compliance with all prescriptions of the attending physician, there is a great chance of obtaining a disability and even death.
Now there are several developed techniques for treating this disease. Standard treatment includes the administration of statins and antioxidants. For example, "simvastatin" or "atorvastatin" and vitamin E. It is important to restore the correct metabolism in tissues. For this, the doctor can prescribe "Mildronate", "Tiotriazolin" or "Trimetazidine."Important is the appointment of biogenic stimulants( FIBS, aloe) and angioprotectors( "Parmidin", "Dicinon" or "Anginin").The doctor can prescribe "Heparin", "Clopidogrel" or "Cardiomagnet", which dilute the blood and prevent the formation of blood clots and plaques.
If the diagnosis was carried out on time, and the disease was identified in the early stages, then patients are assigned to physical therapy classes( Burger exercises and short walking).