Akinetic-rigid syndrome: description, causes, symptoms and treatment
The nervous system is the mechanism by which all human organs interact with each other. If there are problems with nerve endings, then these connections are violated, which leads to problems with the functionality of the organism. Akinetic-rigid syndrome is a complex progressive disease characterized by impaired motor activity of a person, up to complete paralysis.
Features of the disease
Disease is one of the disorders of the motor system, in which there is an increase in the tonus of muscle tissue by plastic type. In addition, there is a significant slowdown in voluntary movements.
Presented pathology can be safely attributed to the number of those who with time only progress and actively develop, at one point deprive a person of the opportunity to move or perform basic work.
Akinetic-rigid syndrome is characterized by a large number of unpleasant symptoms, the intensity of which increases with time. Before the treatment is prescribed, the patient must undergo a thorough diagnosis.
The presented pathology is associated with a violation of the functionality of those parts of the brain that are responsible for performing motor activities. When making a diagnosis, special attention must be paid to the hereditary predisposition.
Causes of development of
So, akinetic-rigid syndrome can provoke such reasons:
- Negative consequences after encephalitis.
- Paralysis, accompanied by tremors of the lower and upper extremities.
- Hepato-cerebral dystrophy. Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels.
- Serious poisoning with intoxication of the whole organism.
- Craniocerebral injury in the anamnesis.
- Pathologies that have a cumulative character.
- Parkinson's disease( most common cause).
- Multiple Sclerosis.
- Degeneration in cortico-basal type.
- The presence of HIV in the body.
If the patient has a suspicion of akinetic-rigid syndrome, the causes, symptoms of the pathology should be considered with particular care. An incorrectly diagnosed diagnosis can be fraught with disastrous consequences.
Symptomatic of pathology
Akinetic-rigid syndrome can have such symptoms:
- The formation of muscle hypertonia, which is present in the patient throughout the therapy.
- Not full extension of upper limbs. At the same time, arms are bent not only in the elbows, but also in the hands.
- Inadequate leg extension in the knees, which progresses over time.
- The omission of the head is closer to the chest.
- Loss of intensity and variety of movements.
- Slowness of any motor actions.
- Tremor of the upper and lower extremities, and also the jaw. When moving, this symptomatology decreases slightly.
- Unintelligible speech. At conversation the person practically does not express any emotions.
- Problems with thinking.
- Absence of reactions of facial muscles even in everyday life.
- The obsession of communication.
- Impossibility of independent movement.
The akinetic-rigid syndrome affects even the handwriting of a person: it becomes small, so it is difficult to disassemble.
Species of pathology
The presented disease can be classified as follows:
- Akinetic-rigid form. It manifests itself in akinesia, as well as in muscle weakness.
- Rigid-shake form. This kind of syndrome is mixed. It combines tremor of all limbs, as well as muscle dysfunction.
- Throbbing form. Despite the fact that the patient has a tremor of limbs, muscle weakness is absent or weakly expressed. Legs and hands tremble almost constantly. This form implies the lack of the ability to service yourself - even to hold a cup.
Diagnosis of pathology
Syndrome akinetic-rigid is a complex disease that requires differential diagnosis. The doctor should take into account such data when making the diagnosis:
- Complaints of the patient, as well as his anamnesis for finding out the cause of the pathology development( hereditary predisposition).
- Laboratory tests.
- Reflex studies.
The patient needs a consultation with a neurologist, since the pathology is related to the lack of functionality of the nerves.
Degrees of development of pathology
What is akinetically-rigid syndrome is already known, further, it is necessary to carefully consider the degree of development of pathology:
- Light. Symptoms of the disease can only spread to one limb. At the same time muscle tone rises slightly. Movement becomes slightly delayed, tremor is clearly visible.
- Moderate. The patient's mimicry is poorly expressed( it becomes poorer), the movements become slightly chained. The variety of movements is poorer, and tremor of the hands at rest is not strong. The patient is in a slightly hunched pose, which is reflected in his gait. The type of increase in muscle tone is extropiramidal.
- Expressive. Mimic muscles in this case do not function almost completely. Movements become even slower, tremors increase. The patient begins to move with small steps. His pose remains stooped. The speech of the patient becomes lubricated, not entirely understandable.
- Very pronounced. Stiffness of muscles in this case is general, the patient practically does not rise to his feet, he is confined to bed. Amymia reaches such a level that a person even rarely blinks. The inhibition is present not only in movements, but also in mental processes. Speech is almost impossible to disassemble.
As can be seen from the previous information, the presented disease has an unpleasant and even dangerous dynamics. Therefore at the first signs it is necessary to address to the doctor.
Treatment features of
pathology So, the treatment of akinetic-rigid syndrome depends on the severity of its development. In severe cases, a person can be placed in a hospital. Therapy provides:
- The intake of muscle relaxants - special drugs that help relax the muscles and reduce their tone. Among such drugs can be identified: "Meprothan", "Midokalm", "Flexin".
- Use of drugs prescribed for Parkinson's disease. These drugs make it possible to combat paralysis and also to resist motor dysfunction: Lizurid, Piridoxin, Romparkin, Levodopa. Naturally, these drugs are very strong and have many side effects. A lot of drugs can be used to treat the syndrome, as they are not always effective, and the disease itself has many different symptoms. There are no universal remedies for the treatment of the disease.
During the rehabilitation period, which lasts almost all of life, physiotherapeutic procedures are actively used. They provide an opportunity to repair damaged muscle groups and strengthen them. Especially this applies to the tissues of the spine and joints.
The psychological support of the relevant specialists is also important. In particularly difficult cases, surgical intervention may be recommended. Doctors perform a stereotaxic neurosurgical operation. It allows you to restore damaged tissue.
Degree of limitation of vital activity in the disease
Treatment of akinetic-rigid syndrome is permanent and prolonged. However, in most cases, it still leads to the limitation of life:
restrictions no restrictions
If a person is diagnosed with an akinetic-rigid syndrome, the consequences can be unpredictable. Continuous progression of the pathology usually leads to partial or complete paralysis of the limbs. That is, without crutches a person can not walk or will be chained to bed.
In most cases, pathological changes are irreversible. Treatment is carried out to support more or less normal motor function, as well as to slow the progression of the disease. In any case, you can not lose heart. Timely therapy will make it possible to improve the patient's condition somewhat.
That's all the features of akinetic-rigid syndrome. Be healthy!